Program Requirements

  • Four core courses
  • Five elective courses
  • Three research courses

Areas of Concentration

Students may pursue a concentration in one of the fields listed below. A selected list of electives pursuant to the concentrations is below. Most electives are focused on the three pillars of the degree and on corresponding concentrations. Please consult with your advisor if in doubt about the applicability of a course to a particular concentration. All courses are three graduate credits unless otherwise specified. Courses are offered in a variety of formats: on-site, online, and hybrid.

  • Strategic Studies Concentration – Learn why and how international actors employ hard power with particular emphases on military affairs, intelligence, and terrorism and irregular warfare.
  • Energy and Environmental Security Concentration – Study how environmental challenges and energy constraints interact with international politics and conflict.
  • Economic Security Concentration – Explore the interdependent nature of global economic affairs and actors, from the underworld of transnational organized crime to the high-stakes questions of the United States’ and China’s changing roles in the global economy.

Core Courses

Students must complete four core courses. With the exception of AS.470.601 Climate Change and National Security and AS.470.657 Energy, Security, and Defense all of these courses are offered every semester.

These three core courses are required and "Introduction to Global Security Studies" should be scheduled during your first semester.

This course introduces students to the basic concepts of global security studies, including theories of international relations, perception and misperception, theories of foreign policy, the varying concepts of security, and the elements of national power. It also includes a brief introduction to social movement theory. It applies these conceptual tools to selected security issues.

In the wake of the financial crisis, bank bailouts, and stimulus plans, the relationship between American economic power and national security is especially salient. In this course, students investigate core topics in international political economy, analyzing the security implications of each. Topics include trade relations, international finance, monetary relations, poverty, and development. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies. Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

This course examines how states (primarily the United States) and other political entities harness military capabilities to pursue of policy objectives. It exposes students to levels of strategy—grand strategy, strategy, operations, and tactics—in a national security context. The course will then focus on the practical implications and unique characteristics of military strategy. Students will critically examine topics such as civil-military relations, land warfare, naval warfare, theories of airpower, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and nuclear warfare. The goal is to understand the embedded assumptions of the various theories, the characteristics of the military capabilities animated by them, and, through discussion and case studies, the strengths and limitations of each.

Additional Core Course

Please select one of these three core courses.

This course examines the nexus of energy, natural resources, and the environment with conflict, war, terrorism, crime, development, diplomacy, politics, and technology. Students critically examine the ways that increased competition for environmental and energy resources, strained resources, and changing conditions can threaten national security. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

Research Study Courses

This program does not require a thesis. However, it does require the completion of a rigorous research study of journal article length.

These two research study courses are required. "Qualitative Methods in Social Science" should be taken in your second or third semester and the "Research Study Seminar" should be in your final semester.

This course is the first in the Research Study sequence for the Global Security Studies program. The goals of this course are: 1) to help students be producers of scholarly knowledge, 2) to prepare students for later parts of the research study process, and 3) to prepare students to understand and critique others’ uses of various methods. The first part of the course will address fundamental issues, such as measurement, causation, and inference. The second part of the course will address research design, data collection, and analysis, focusing on specific methodological tools including case study analysis, interviews, content analysis, participant observation, survey research, etc.

(Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies). This course is designed for students who have already passed 470.851 Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Social Science and either 470.854 Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods or 470.853 Historical Methods (or 470.709 Quantitative Methods with permission from program director). In this class, students will begin and complete a substantial piece of original research explicitly drawing on research methods they learned in the previous two classes. The research study is expected to be methodologically sound and to make a useful contribution to the issue under study. Class meetings are designed to give guidance in the clarification of issues, collection of data, assembly of various parts, and writing. The class will also prepare students for final defense. Graduation is subject to approval of the research study by the committee. Students should come into the class prepared with a detailed research question. Students may enroll in this course only in their last semester of the MA program.

Additional Research Study Course

Please select one of these three research study courses. If you choose "Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods", plan to enroll in this course about midway through your studies.

Solutions to policy challenges increasingly require an understanding of how to analyze, present, and interpret data.  Government agencies use data to evaluate programs and proposed policy initiatives.  Private companies use data to inform their strategic decision making.  Advocacy organizations use data to support their positions.  This course will provide you with the knowledge and skills needed to perform a sophisticated data analysis.  You will learn how to design and test regression models using R/RStudio, an incredibly powerful and open-source statistical software package.  Specific topics covered in the course include measures of fit, logistic and probit regression, panel data, instruments, and translating statistical findings for broad audiences.  The focus of the course is on using statistics in an applied manner to address meaningful research questions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics

Historians reclaim, recover, and revise what we know about the past. They enter a dialog with the dead to make sense of our world for the living, knowing full well that their hard-earned results may be overturned with new data, analysis, or insights. Yet questionable or flawed “history” is routinely to justify a range of experiences, policies, and events. In this course, we instill the key skills and analytical framework in which historians use to uncover and recreate the past, taking the journey from question, to research (onsite and online), to argument and revision (and revisionism). The importance of argument, objectivity, personal and temporal bias, evidence, narrative and cultural context are examined in detail, along with case studies of history being used, misused, and abused by historians and other actors.

The main purpose of this class is to train students to be informed consumers of quantitative studies, in addition to teaching the tools of basic statistical work. The emphasis in this class is on application and understanding of existing results, rather than on theory or derivations. The course material will cover basic descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and data collection. The key learning objective is for students to finish the class with a better understanding of the statistical and econometric results they may encounter, both in papers they read in other classes, as well as in the course of their work. The second key objective is for students to have the skills to employ basic quantitative tools in their own work in the fields of public policy and global security studies. As much as possible, assignments and readings used in class will be drawn from the public policy and security fields. There is no mathematical or statistical pre-requisite for the class. (Core course for the MA in Public Management and the MA in Global Security Studies.)

Strategic Studies Concentration Electives

This course provides an overview of the manifold challenges and opportunities for United States security in the current disordered and changing world. It aims to help students assess why events occur and what policies are developed in response. In that endeavor, the course has three major objectives. First, the course will review the major perspectives on, and debates about, U.S. security and the institutions through which policy is made and executed. Second, the course will review some U.S. security issues through scholarly, policy, political, and historical lenses. Third, the course will help students write for both policy and academic audiences. This course is not open to students who have had 470.606 American National Security.

This course provide an overview of the principal areas important to the study of terrorism. The course offers a variety of academic, policy, and operational models, theories, approaches, and concepts regarding the definitions of terrorism, the nature and functioning of various terrorist groups across the globe, and a variety of domestic and international governmental operational and policy responses. Through this exploration, students will be able to identify patterns of behavior of both terrorist groups and governmental responses, and will also be able to identify gaps, and principal areas of improvements in how we understand, and respond to this important security challenge.

This class will examine the role of Congress in the making of American foreign policy. In particular, this class will discuss the role of Congress in war powers, economic sanctions, human rights advocacy, the approval of international agreements including treaties, international affairs budgets and spending, investigations and oversight of the conduct of foreign policy by the executive branch as well as the impact of Congress on the general direction of American foreign policies and priorities. Special attention will be given to the role of Congress in U.S. policy toward Iran over the past few decades, the use of military force in Iraq and Syria, the role of the legislative branch in U.S policy toward China and Taiwan and the promotion of human rights as a component of American foreign policy. The class will seek to examine the specific actions of Congress on these matters, and their causes and consequences. The class will use books, articles and original source material from committee deliberations and floor action. As we examine these topics, we will come back to larger themes – the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, the impact of partisan and bureaucratic politics, and the changing role of the United States on the world stage. All this will be discussed with a mind to the role of foreign policy practitioners.

The South Asian region, with its complex historical context, a large and diverse population, and contested national borders, especially between nuclearized countries, poses some of the toughest security challenges facing the world. This course highlights salient security challenges in South Asia, and draws out their implications for U.S. strategic interests. It examines the sources and implications of the rivalry between nuclearized India and Pakistan, and how it fuels Sino-Indian security competition. Attention is drawn to the sources of militancy in India, and to the threats to international and regional security arising from the conflict in Afghanistan. The Sri Lankan Tamil Tiger insurgency and its eventual defeat in 2009 are also discussed, alongside the rising Islamist militancy threats in Bangladeshi, and the history of Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Finally, some of the climate-based threats to which no South Asian country is immune will also be discussed.

Transnational organized crime often is not well understood because crime is most often conceptualized as a domestic legal concern. However, transnational organized crime is more than that. It is crime ordered into complex clandestine networks that operates transnationally with little regard for the borders of states. The gravity of the problem lies not only in the increasing complexity of these organizations, but more importantly, with the serious challenge they pose in their ability to penetrate and operate with relative impunity in several states simultaneously. These illegal enterprises not only threaten aspects of state sovereignty and security that traditionally have been taken for granted, but they prove the permeability of national borders and the vulnerability of state institutions. This course will examine a variety of transnational organized criminal groups, their modus operandi, and their illicit activities. It also will focus on some domestic organized crime groups both to provide a depth of understanding of the operations of organized criminal activity in different countries, as well as to show how international groups can make inroads into domestic markets if they cooperate with local groups.

This course examines the open source research discipline (often called open source intelligence or OSINT), and is primarily concerned with how open source research helps a diverse mix of actors achieve their goals. It is designed to help students develop open source research skills that can have broad utility in their academic and professional careers while considering such topics as how these skills empower governments and a range of nongovernmental actors, including private companies, international aid agencies, and even terrorist groups. In addition to gaining experience applying tools and techniques utilized by OSINT professionals to perform independent research and participate in collaborative exercises, students will become familiar with ethical and legal issues which influence the design of open source research in academic settings.

This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of issues such as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security. Not only are transnational security issues varied in nature and scope, but their effects often are obscured by the fact that many are nascent with gradual and long-term consequences. Further, while some transnational issues may not constitute direct threats to global security, they may threaten the world economy, and quality of life of its citizens. Still others compound and reinforce each other, generating mutations of the original threats. This course will examine a small number of these transnational security issues and relevant policy-making efforts.

Russia plays a key role in most international issues and openly campaigns to realign the international system away from what it sees as American domination. This course considers the substance and process of Russian national security policy. It acquaints students with the main instruments and mechanisms available to Russian leaders to advance the country’s national interests and key policy priorities. The course considers how Russia formulates and conducts its national security policy, the history that informs it, the political culture that sustain it, the ideas and interests that drive it, and the people and institutions responsible for it. The course addresses Russia’s role in key global and regional issues and its relations with major powers. It places special emphasis on the wars in Ukraine and Syria, Russian concepts of information war, and on Russian military reform.

This course will comprise a comprehensive examination of what deterrence is and what it will require in the 21st century. It will seek to grapple with and provide insights on a range of fundamental questions of theoretical and policy import including, What comprises deterrence in the years ahead?; How should decision makers understand the many new relevant domains and capabilities (not just nuclear, but space, cyber, missile defenses, advanced conventional) in which deterrence issues and concerns may well have to be paramount in their minds?; What are the roles and requirements of extended deterrence in the emerging geopolitical environment?; How might deterrence come to play in emerging areas such as hybrid warfare?; How might deterrence fail?; and What are the intentional and unintentional escalation paths and dynamics, including cross-domain dynamics, likely to be at work in crises and conflicts ahead?

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

This course will explore some of the most contested and controversial aspects in contemporary security studies. There are a number of contentious and wide-ranging debates around ideas like radicalization not least concerning its definition, causes, and effects. This course will also prompt you to consider broader issues, such as whether there is a causal link between extremism and violent extremism? Why do some radicalized individuals to embrace terrorism, when other don’t? And should security officials concern themselves with radicalization, or only with its violent offshoots? This course will unpack many of these debates, exploring academic and theoretical literature surrounding the issues of radicalization, recruitment, and deradicalization in modern terrorist networks. It will focus primarily on cases in Europe and the United States, while also exploring new phenomena such as homegrown, self-starter, and lone wolf terrorism.

Overuse is not the only problem with the maxim that American “politics stop at the water’s edge.” The slogan has simply never been true. American foreign policy has always been a result not just of the crises and opportunities the nation has faced but its unique politics and policy processes. American national interests are determined through the democratic processes established by the Constitution and other legislation and affected by the politics that drive the nation’s elections, its conversations and its foreign policies. These politics and processes have been remarkably consistent since the founding even as the nation’s interests have grown significantly. A better understanding of both the politics and processes of American foreign policy will help students appreciate how the country’s policies are made today and will be made in the future.

No topic has captured the public imagination of late quite so dramatically as the specter of global jihadism. While much has been said about the way jihadists behave, their ideology remains poorly understood. This course aims to help students explore the intellectual development of jihadist ideology, focusing on how conflict has shaped Islamic theology and law. We go from the movement’s origins in the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the jihadist insurgencies of the 1990s and the 9/11 wars. What emerges is the story of a pragmatic but resilient warrior doctrine that often struggles, as so many utopian ideologies do, to consolidate the idealism of theory with the reality of practice.

Drawing on the social movement literature, this course examines the emergence of irregular armed groups and their decisions to use violence. It explains how social movements turnviolent, how violence dictates their nature, and what this nature can tell us in terms of group strengths and weaknesses. It provides the students with the analytical tools needed to distinguish between terrorism, insurgency, and crime – by focusing and understanding group strategies, behavior, and capabilities. Students will thus be familiarized with the theory on armed group formation and evolution – but the course goes further, by counterposing such theory to the complexities of practice through the consideration of key case studies. The course ends with an overview of state strategies intended to counter a wide variety of threats. Particular attention is paid to the notion of operational art and lines of effort to underline the potential and meaning of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency.

Change is perennial in national security and military affairs, but knowing how, why, and when to embrace change is both difficult and vital. Strategies and tactics may be outdated, new ideas may be resisted, and science and technology continue to change our world faster than we can optimize. The paradox deepens with context: innovation in peacetime has one logic while innovation in war has another. This course unravels the nature of change in military affairs through four themes: ideas, materials, human capital and structure, and, appreciation of the enemy. The course explores these themes through a series of case studies from around the world. Topics include civilian development/military application of science and technology; learning from failure and success (including from other nations); institutional reactions to change; procurement and the role of industry; and, the impact and limitations of individual “champions” of change.

Counterterrorism is essentially an intelligence war. By definition, both sides use small forces and clandestine means, hiding their presence and activities not only from each other, but often from friends and allies as well. This course will explore the many roles of intelligence in every facet of counterterrorism, and ask students to evaluate their practical, legal, and moral effects and implications. It will also look at the terrorists’ own intelligence activities, and the “intelligence race” between terrorists and counterterrorists. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, students would be well served to have a basic familiarity with intelligence and terrorism before the class starts.

This class examines the phenomenon of irregular warfare—of insurgencies and counterinsurgencies in particular—through a historical lens. The course will give you students insight into the origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of irregular wars, as well as the principles of counterinsurgency theory and practice. Through the course, you will analyze current irregular wars, understand what caused them and whether they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful, and see how they can be combated.

This course familiarizes students with the general contours of US national security strategy and military policy from the First World War through the so-called “Long War” era of Iraq and Afghanistan. The United States has a long, complex, and increasingly dysfunctional relationship with the use of violence in pursuit of policy aims (war). The institutions of the United States with responsibility for war-making have, over the past century, been shaped by powerful forces of change and continuity as the US adapts to the evolving character of war. Students will develop an appreciation for these factors that have shaped US security policy since WWI, be able to frame current policy debates in that context, and be able to forecast potential implications for the decades ahead.

War practitioners, policy makers, and security studies scholars study asymmetric warfare to understand why poorly armed insurgents effectively resist and even defeat technologically advanced and materially stronger armies. This course studies a perfect asymmetry in nonviolent warfare where unarmed ordinary people are able to effectively challenge and eventually defeat a fully armed, resource-rich regimes. In fact, historically, nonviolent movements have been twice as effective against violent regimes as armed insurgencies. This course will consider skills of organized populations in inter-state and intra-state conflicts, including anti-dictatorship, anti-occupation, anti-corruption, anti-violence struggles and analyze how disciplined civilians use nonviolent strategies and tactics to galvanize large and diverse participation, place their violent opponents in dilemma, make repression backfire and cause defections among adversaries' pillars of support.

As China's role on the international stage continues to grow, how will its behavior affect the dynamics of global peace and security? Beijing has long espoused a principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, but China is becoming a more central player in efforts to address global security challenges. China's diplomatic outreach in Afghanistan and the Middle East, economic investments in Pakistan and Burma, increased participation in peacekeeping operations, and more vocal presence in multilateral institutions all reflect the country’s expanding influence. Students will put themselves into the position of national security leaders in China, in the United States, and in third countries to explore a range of national interests, priorities, objectives, strategies, and policy tools.

This course will provide an overview of current issues in the cyber realm, focusing on policy and conflict from a U.S. and international perspective. We will begin with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and consider the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through the use of case studies, we will examine previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. We will analyze the roles of several different types of cyber actors including state actors, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups and private sector/business responses. This course will also examine the issue of cyber deterrence, and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. A technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.

Since World War II, American trade policy has been implemented through agreements with a growing array of foreign governments to encourage global economic integration by lowering barriers to international trade. The course will begin with a look at the foundation of this approach to trade policy at the end of World War II and the relationship the Roosevelt and Truman administrations saw between integration and security policy. It will then introduce students to the American trade regime of the early 21st century and the WTO, and examine the ways the U.S. governments has adapted this regime to regional challenges arising from relationships with Japan, China, and the Muslim world, and to policy issues, like resource dependence, sanctions and export controls. The course will have a midterm exam on America’s trade regime and the concepts that have shaped it, and a final paper, in which students will examine an issue of their choice in depth. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

The course examines how terrorist groups finance their operations. It also explores current policy approaches to curb financial support to terrorists through the application of U.S. and international sanctions, in particular how multilateral fora, such as the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, disrupt and deter terrorist financing. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of the key tools, including law enforcement, diplomacy, and intelligence, that are used to counter terrorists’ financial networks and activities. Through this course, students will develop proficiency in a series of analytic methods used to study terrorist financing and counter financing. Students will use structured analytic tools such as weighted ranking methods, scenario trees, causal flow diagramming, hypothesis testing, and utility analysis, as well as game theory and logic to form analytic judgments. Prior coursework or professional experience in intelligence, (counter) terrorism, or finance recommended.

This course will provide the analytical and contextual skills required to understand the current political and security situation of Iran. After laying out the context of the Iranian Revolution through a brief examination of the Pahlavi years, the course then weaves together Iran’s political, military, diplomatic, social, economic development during the turbulent years between Iran’s 1978-1979 revolution and the 2015 nuclear agreement—covering a time period of roughly 1941 to the present day. This course covers three main inter-related topics: the history and development of the modern Iranian state; the interaction between state and society in modern Iran; and Iran’s diplomatic history in the 20th and 21st centuries. The course concludes with a discussion of Iran’s present-day foreign, security, and defense structures and processes.

This course introduces students to the field of intelligence, particularly as practiced in the United States. After a brief overview of the historical foundations of modern intelligence, it discusses how intelligence was conducted during the 20th century including collection, analysis, counterintelligence, covert action, and oversight. It then discusses the disruptive influences of September 11, the Iraq War, and new technologies. The course concludes with a discussion of the “democratization of intelligence."

This course examines the evolution of armed conflict in the Middle East over the past three decades and why the United States' conventional military dominance has not led to lasting strategic victory. Attention will be paid to how both states and non-state actors in the region have adjusted to America (and Israel)'s overwhelming conventional military superiority through deterrent strategies, asymmetric tactics (i.e. insurgency, terrorism, tunnel warfare), and exploitation of advanced commercial technologies (i.e. improvised explosive devices, UAVs, cyberwarfare, information operations) in lethal and/or strategic operations. Students will utilize "rationalist" and cultural frameworks to critically analyze these innovations across multiple conflicts/operations, including: Operations Iraqi Freedom and Inherent Resolve; various iterations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; the civil wars in Syria and Yemen; and strategic conflict between Iran and the United States (and Israel) . The course's objective is to provide a better understanding of the relationship between military technological capability and strategic success in modern conflict, and of the challenges U.S. policymakers may face in future conflicts both in the Middle East and globally against other great powers.

This course examines U.S. policy responses to the changing political and security landscape of the Middle East. Bringing together historical events, primary sources and secondary literature and contextual analysis, this course provides the analytical skills required to develop a sophisticated understanding of the current political and security situation in the Middle East. Students will engage key topics in modern Middle Eastern politics and security, including the origins of Islam, Arab nationalism and its rise to prominence, the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts, the internal/external struggles against Western imperialism, the competition among Arab states for regional dominance, the Cold War the Middle East, America’s relations with Iran and Iraq, the oil economy of the Gulf, the challenge minorities pose to the region, the rise of Islamic radicalism, the Arab Spring, and the rise and fall of the Islamic State.

This course examines the phenomenon of modern warfare through both a theoretical and historical lens. It will provide insight into the definitions, origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of modern conflict. Throughout the course you will analyze recent and ongoing conventional, irregular, and hybrid wars and understand what caused them, how they were conducted, and why they ended the way they did. Through a combination of lecture and online discussion, students will analyze these conflicts from a variety of perspectives to include state security and military forces, insurgents, criminals, and terrorists. Prerequisite: AS.470.692 Military Strategy & National Policy.

Do all countries conduct their intelligence activities in the same way? If not, what are the reasons for the differences? This class will consider theoretical ways of understanding and assessing national intelligence systems. It will look at political, historical, and cultural factors which may influence the development and functions of nations’ intelligence agencies and systems. The class will include an examination of the "ways of intelligence" of the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR/Russia, Germany, China, and Iraq, among others.

This course describes the principal challenges facing the making of American Defense Policy and explains previous and current policies declared and practiced to meet them. The course is designed to inform students on the most pressing defense issues confronting the United States, and to present them a framework for defense policy analysis. It emphasizes understanding those defense policies, analyzing them, and considering and weighing alternative approaches to achieving national objectives of deterrence and defense. The course fosters an understanding of the array of U.S. military capabilities providing plausible responses to the use of military power in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. It examines those policies in the areas of nuclear, conventional, and irregular forces, and weighs alternatives in shaping the size and structure of those forces to meet national objectives.

This course explores the phenomenon of terrorism and its nexus with technology. Beginning with an emphasis on terrorist group factors most likely to influence terrorists' perceptions and attitudes towards extant and emerging technologies, the course subsequently investigates cases of terrorist use, and noteworthy non-use, of various technologies. Students also receive a broad understanding of the evolution of technology with an emphasis on current and imminent technologies of acute security concern, including weapons of mass destruction, cyber, robotics, and nanotechnologies. The course then addresses counterterrorism technologies and potential terrorist response actions for overcoming such security efforts. Students operationalize all of these elements in the final phases of the course when engaging in Red Team exercises designed to demonstrate which types of terrorists are most likely to pursue certain types of technologies, the role of tacit versus explicit knowledge, likelihood of successful adoption, targeting options, and potential counterterrorism measures. Please note that students do not need to possess a technical background or prior knowledge of terrorism to succeed in this course.

Students gain the foundational knowledge behind WMD (both weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass disruption) and about how these weapons threaten U.S. homeland security. Weapons of mass destruction traditionally include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, while weapons of mass disruption include radiological weapons, such as "dirty bombs." In addition, the course covers the technology behind three WMD delivery vehicles: ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles. In assessing each WMD threat, the course first examines the science and technology for each type of weapon and then applies this theory to real world threats emanating from state and non-state actors. Students apply this knowledge by engaging in red team exercises to identify options for preventing and reducing vulnerabilities from WMD. Please note that students do not have to have prior technical knowledge about WMD issues to succeed in this course.

Since 1945, eight states have tested nuclear weapons, and perhaps two dozen others have started -- and stopped nuclear weapons programs. This course considers why some countries pursue nuclear weapons and why others forgo them, an issue that bedevils both policymakers, who concerned about the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and political scientists, who attempt to explain and predict it. The class will delve into past and present examples, discussing and evaluating theories of why states pursue such weapons, the technologies that make it possible, and the policy tools available to prevent it. We will also draw on the parallel efforts to control chemical weapons, biological weapons, and ballistic missiles.

Since the end of the Cold War the world has seen a scourge of civil conflicts emerging across the globe, such as in Bosnia, Rwanda, Darfur, DRC, South Sudan, and now Syria, global conflicts have put enormous pressure on intergovernmental bodies and governments. Whether too slow to respond, afflicted by political restraints or hindered by bureaucracy, the restrictions on international agencies and governments have often placed NGOs at the fore of response. Partnering with both national governments, military, and international agencies, NGOs have gained recognition for their role in diplomacy, conflict resolution, and peacebuilding. NGOs have gained a prominent role at helping to defuse, mitigate, and prevent conflicts strengthening their influence and recognition. This course will provide an overview on the role that international organizations and civil society (including community based organizations) can have in conflict or post-conflict torn countries. Students will learn how to build strategic partnerships when working with local organizations and NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

This course examines the role of social science in national security decision making and intelligence. The course lectures, readings and classroom discussion are intended to help students understand the ambivalent relationship between social scientists on the one hand and intelligence personnel and national security policy makers on the other. It also considers the opportunities and limitations in the ways social science could contribute to policy making and how social science has contributed to key national issues. The course will help the student become a savvy consumer of social science.

This course introduces students to the field of intelligence, particularly as practiced in the United States. After a brief overview of the historical foundations of modern intelligence, it discusses how intelligence is conducted including collection, analysis, counterintelligence, covert action, and oversight. It also discusses intelligence ethics, as well as the disruptive influences of September 11, new technologies, and emerging social trends.

This course examines the role that intelligence plays in the formation of national security policy. The course explores the forces and events that have shaped U.S. intelligence. It examines the steps involved in producing intelligence from requirements through collection, analysis and the actual making of policy. The role of intelligence in the major intelligence issues facing the United States today will be discussed as well.

This course examines the role that strategic culture plays in intelligence analysis. Students leverage strategic culture analysis to better understand the policies and responses of foreign actors to U.S. policies, increase accuracy in intelligence analysis, and enhance predictive and forecasting capabilities. The course will also highlight the role that U.S. strategic culture plays in responding to foreign actors. Using case studies and current operational scenarios from the U.S. intelligence community, students will decipher nation-states’ and transnational entities’ motives, intent, and capabilities, as well as their ability to actualize political ideologies.

This course provides students with an overview of intelligence structures within the Five Eyes community (US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand). It covers both foreign and domestic agencies, be they civilian, military or police; HUMINT or SIGINT- enabled; security-intelligence or foreign-intelligence oriented; and tactically or strategically-focused. The course will compare how the various Five Eyes security or intelligence services set priorities and objectives, define national interests (versus shared requirements), develop tactical intelligence, create actionable insights, and how they craft timely and relevant assessments for both domestic and foreign partners. Students are expected to be able to draw conclusions on the value of different types of intelligence, from tactical operations intended to mitigate threat to life cases, to strategic insights relating to proliferation or espionage cases. Upon completing the course, students will understand the dynamics that exist amongst operators and analysts, as well as partners within and outside of the alliance, between domestic intelligence clients and foreign agencies, in regards to sensitive national interests and those of the international partnership.

Covert action (CA) remains a highly controversial and generally misunderstood element within the Intelligence Community. Title 50 of the United States Code defines Covert Action as: “…an activity or activities of the United States Government to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly.” Lying somewhere between overt diplomatic initiatives and direct military intervention, CA is often referred to as the “third option” when addressing foreign policy issues that impact on U.S. national security interests. Through selected case studies, we will review the mechanisms by which CA is initiated, managed and executed, determining what CA can and equally important, cannot accomplish. We will also see how CA, as conducted by the CIA, is often used in a dual track program alongside State Department initiatives in an effort to resolve particularly difficult foreign policy dilemmas. CA is not unique to the U.S., and is often employed by other countries as well. Whether Russian “active measures,” or French “direct action,” variants of CA continue to form an integral, albeit highly secretive, element of statecraft.

In today’s global world, reaching international audiences is a key function of U.S. government-funded public diplomacy programs, corporate public relations, and non-governmental organizations involved in relief and development. Through readings, lectures, discussions and exercises, this course examines the differences between domestic and international media environments. Students develop communication skills needed to deliver messages and craft outreach strategies and programs for non-American audiences. Special attention is paid to communicating with audiences in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia, including Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. Topics include a historical overview of international public relations and public diplomacy, opportunities and challenges for today’s public diplomacy practitioner, using research to understand international audiences, writing effectively for international audiences, health and development communication, and communication in international conflict resolution. Students emerge with skills to work overseas in the fast-growing areas of public diplomacy and international public relations.

Energy and Environmental Security Concentration Electives

This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

The multiple crises plaguing the world today make evident the mutual inter-dependence and vulnerability of people and nations. The idea of human security has gained increasing significance within this increasingly complex and interconnected world. Human security places emphasis on the security needs of individual citizens, rather than being preoccupied by traditional, state-centric conceptions of security. It takes into account the impact of security threats such as economic crises, pandemics, and climate change on the lives of individuals within and across national boundaries. The course thus draws attention to alternative interpretations of what constitute security threats and how to contend with the underlying causes of volatility and human insecurity that prevail around the world.

This course examines the nexus of energy, natural resources, and the environment with conflict, war, terrorism, crime, development, diplomacy, politics, and technology. Students critically examine the ways that increased competition for environmental and energy resources, strained resources, and changing conditions can threaten national security. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

This course provides an introduction to the hydrological cycle and examines the influence of climate, geology, and human activity on this cycle. The components comprising this cycle will be examined and include: precipitation; evapotranspiration; surface and groundwater flow; storage in natural reservoirs; water quality; and water resource management and regulation. Discussion of these topics in threaded discussions using the primary literature as well as problem sets will highlight applications and areas of current hydrological research. Offered online and onsite three times per year. Onsite version includes a required field trip.

The course is designed to introduce students to the process by which environmental policy can be implemented as law in the international sphere. “Law of the Sea” formed the foundation of modern public international law. It also represents the world’s first efforts to define and regulate a “global commons” and to grapple with the management of resources as the “common heritage of mankind”. Topics explored include freedom of navigation on the high seas, the limits on port-state jurisdiction over foreign vessels, and the scope of coastal nations’ power to regulate activities in their respective territorial waters, “contiguous zones”, and “exclusive economic zones”. The course also examines how the UNCLOS regime functions in tandem with other treaties, customary international law, the role of voluntary standards (such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International and International Organization for Standardization (ISO)) and domestic law in addressing specific current issues - including management of living and nonliving resources on the Continental Shelf, deep seabed mining, reduction of pollution, protection of highly migratory fish stocks, aquaculture, “marine dead zones”, and the future of ocean policy.

Climate change impacts and policies effect different groups of people in varying ways. More vulnerable populations will disproportionately experience impacts more severely (drought, flooding, food security, storms, heat islands, changes to resources and livelihoods). Also, policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change will have differential impacts. In this course, we will review both climate impacts and proposed policies through the lens of equity and justice. Topics to cover will include: analysis of differential impacts, equity critique of mitigation policies, and the impact of adaptation policies on the poor and people of color. The course will cover both the US and international topics.

In this course, students study the oceans and the atmosphere as interrelated systems. The basic concepts of air masses, water masses, winds, currents, fronts, eddies, and storms are linked to permit a fundamental understanding of the similar nature of oceanic and atmospheric processes. Among the course’s topics are weather forecasting, global climate change, marine pollution, and an introduction to applied oceanography. A field trip is included for in-person sections. Offered on-site or online two to three times each year.

Sustainability Science is an interdisciplinary field engaged with understanding the dynamics between natural and social systems and how those interactions challenge the notion of sustainability. This course will start by reviewing the history of the concept of sustainability and will then consider how it has been applied in the environmental sciences. Specifically the goal of the course is to provide a comprehensive, multidisciplinary perspective on this emerging field, understanding its theory, research horizons, and practical applications. Concepts to be reviewed include socio-environmental systems, complex adaptive systems, cross-scalar impacts, tipping points and regime shifts, vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity, equity, sustainable development, political ecology, governance, capital assets and livelihoods. In a seminar context this course will consider these and other concepts from a theoretical perspective but will focus on their application in solving real-world problems.

This course provides students with a broad introduction to U.S. environmental policymaking and policy analysis. Included are a historical perspective as well as an analysis of future policymaking strategies. Students examine the political and legal framework, become familiar with precedent-setting statutes such as NEPA , RCRA , and the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, and study models for environmental policy analysis. Cost benefit studies, the limits of science in policymaking, and the impact of environmental policies on society are important aspects of the course. A comparison of national and international policymaking is designed to provide students with the global perspective on environmental policy. Offered online or onsite, at least twice per year.

Covering over 70% of our planet, the ocean produces half the planet’s oxygen, absorbs a quarter of all carbon dioxide emissions, feeds 3 billion people, and contributes $3 trillion per year to the global economy. Yet, we know more about the moon’s surface than we do about the bottom of the ocean. What we do know, however, is that overfishing, pollution, land-use change, and ocean warming and acidification, to name a few, are causing marine biodeterioration and threatening the ability of the ocean to sustain global systems critical for life. This course will provide students with a robust scientific approach to the study of oceans with a focus on environmental issues, governance and social-ecological systems.

This is an interdisciplinary course that examines the history of human interactions with ocean environments, current ocean sustainability issues, and real-world examples of how to advance ocean conservation practices and theories in the future. Students will investigate approaches to protect ocean ecosystems, to promote innovation in ocean governance, and to increase scientific knowledge, research and technology that supports ocean health. This course provides a holistic and systems-based view of how human interactions influence ocean functions and of innovative policies and sustainable management solutions to social and environmental problems stemming from those interactions.

This course examines urbanization and its impacts on the environment. The goal of the course is to better understand how urbanization contributes to ecological damage as well as how cities can be constructed in ecologically healthy ways. Topics include land use planning transportation, waste, management, water quality, open space/greening, green building technology, urban design, and urban ecology. The course takes an international perspective by using case studies of cities in North America, Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. The case studies also include a wide range of cities with different populations, geographic scale, and growth rates. Final projects are an in-depth study of one particular city of the student's choice and its attempts to implement programs for sustainability. Offered online, annually. Prerequisite: 420.614 Environmental Policymaking and Policy Analysis, equivalent course, or experience.

This course explores the methods and strategies for promoting solutions to global environmental problems. Through consideration of issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, tropical deforestation, loss of biodiversity, transnational pollution, and other threats to the international commons, students examine policymaking from the perspective of developed and developing countries, the United Nations system, international financial entities, and nongovernmental interest groups. By investigating important international agreements, students determine how far the international community has come in solving specific problems, what obstacles prevent effective international solutions, and what needs to be done to overcome barriers. Offered onsite or online, infrequently. Prerequisite: 420.614 Environmental Policymaking and Policy Analysis, equivalent course, or experience.

Poor and developing countries are predicted to bear the brunt of climate change. This course will focus on key sectors such as agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water resources, human health, and tourism and the ways in which poorer and developing counties are impacted by and adapting to climate change. This course may focus on a region or a specific country depending on the instructor. Assessment and evaluation of demographic trends, environmental challenges such as retreating ice, potential flood hazards, ecosystem impacts, as well as health issues will be incorporated. International instruments such as adaptation funds, carbon funds, clean development mechanisms, and reduced deforestation/degradation strategies and policies will be investigated in a comparative analysis of impacts and adaptation responses of countries around the world. Offered online, annually.

This course considers the environmental and social challenges of providing a sustainable global food system. We will investigate the geographic patterns of agricultural and food production systems, emphasizing contemporary patterns and how these came to be. Attention will be given to agricultural systems from the local to the global scale and we will consider the global distribution of production and consumption of agricultural products. The impacts of global change issues such as climate change, energy crops, population growth, and urbanization on food production will be also be part of the course. Offered online or onsite, annually.

This graduate-level course explores the dual nature of water scarcity worldwide, including both natural and human causes, and what is being done to help people and ecosystems cope with scarcity. The course covers definitions of water scarcity, the geographic extent of the problem, and trends in factors that contribute to it. It also examines several types of actions that are being taken to deal constructively with water scarcity. These actions fall into the general categories of monitoring, supply enhancement, conservation, re-use, pollution control, lifestyle changes to lower our water footprint, and public policy changes. Many of these actions, especially those related to public policy, are incorporated into seven principles of sustainable water management detailed in the course textbook, “Chasing Water: A guide for moving from scarcity to sustainability”, by Brian Richter of the Nature Conservancy. Examination of the principles helps to end the course on a hopeful note by reminding us that humans collectively use only 5-10 percent of the water that falls as precipitation, and we have the capacity to greatly reduce the human suffering and environmental damage caused by poorly managed use of freshwater resources.

This course is a broad survey of the international water issues facing the 21st century. Topics to be covered include, water security, privatization of water service delivery, conflict and cooperation on trans-boundary rivers, the role of large multi-purpose reservoirs (for hydropower, water supply, irrigation), water as a human right, achieving the Sustainable Development Goals on water supply and sanitation, the role of water in food security, water institutions and policies, and climate change. Any discourse today on sustainable development is not complete without a discussion of the important role of water to society, economic growth, and poverty reduction. Our objective in this course is to gain a broad overview of these issues, primarily from the sustainable development lens, and to critically evaluate these challenges from a multi-disciplinary perspective (e.g. economics, environment, social, engineering, public health). This is important as solutions to water problems will require many different disciplines and expertise working together.

The course begins examining the basic processes of the climate system. The course, then, moves to the study of the changing climate. While natural changes will be studied, the emphasis will be on anthropogenic climate change. Various models for predicting future climate change will be presented, including the assumptions and uncertainties embedded in each model. The regional climate impacts and impacts on subsystems will be examined, including changes in rainfall patterns, loss of ice and changes in sea level. The possible ecological effects of these predicted changes will also be examined. Offered online and on twice per year.

After a study of the historical development of climate change policy, this course analyzes current policy options for mitigating and adapting to long-term climate change. The course will examine various approaches available in the U.S. for national-level policy, including regulatory and market-based approaches, particularly cap and trade and carbon taxation. Various models for designing a cap and trade system will be studied, including the European experience and regional programs in the United States. Special attention will be paid to methods for setting initial prices and accounting for discounting of future benefits. The course will focus primarily on national-level carbon management policies, but international agreements will also be included, as well as equity considerations on a global level.

This course focuses on the development, analysis, and implementation of international policy frameworks and mechanisms for climate change mitigation and adaptation. It includes a review of the history of international responses to climate change at the multilateral and bilateral levels, including in depth examination of the agreements of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Conference of the Parties (COP) as well as important bilateral agreements. The course explores how international climate change policy is affected by the national priorities and capacities of countries, and how these circumstances shape the evolution of both climate change policy and related areas such as trade and energy. It is recommended, but not required, that students take AS.425.602 - Science of Climate Change and its Impacts and/or AS.425.603 - Climate Change Policy Analysis before taking this elective.

Energy policy is about more than sheer market design. Policy agendas have become increasingly complex, adding sustainability and development to traditional energy security concerns. In response, a patchwork of institutional frameworks has emerged, including clubs (OPEC, IEA), treaties, the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), agencies, the International Renewable Energy Agency or policy networks, and the Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership. The course introduces students to the global dimensions of energy policy, discusses shifting agendas, and assesses the institutional spectrum of global energy governance. Offered online at least once every two years.

South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives) is home to more than 1.7 billion people (nearly 25% of the global population). It is also a region of rapidly growing economies, rising energy consumption, and increasing environmental stress. Fossil fuels, particularly coal is the major source of electricity in the region, contributing to rising greenhouse gas emissions and worsening air quality. India in particular is promoting the use of indigenous coal to power its economic growth. At the household level, inefficient use of biomass for cooking and heating continues to be a major health and environmental hazard. Moreover, fresh water stress and pollution has reached alarming levels in the region with far reaching impacts on agriculture and human health.

South Asia is uniquely vulnerable to climate change impacts. On the one hand, receding Himalayan glaciers in Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bhutan are exacerbating water stress and threatening food security for more than a 1 billion people. And on the other hand, Bangladesh and Maldives are prone to sea level rise and coastal flooding from powerful tropical storms.

Creating a sustainable energy and freshwater pathway is intrinsically linked to innovative development approaches tailored to local and regional variabilities. In order to curb growing emissions, the region is promoting renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and micro hydro power. However, the unmet demand for energy, particularly electricity remains so large in South Asia that fossil fuels are expected to be a major part of the future energy mix. Water stress is being managed through a mix of traditional and modern techniques.

Given the demographic size of the region and the pent-up energy demand, it can be argued that the success of global climate change initiatives (such as the 2015 Paris agreement) in large part is cont

Nuclear energy is a potent energy source that is widely feared and misunderstood, yet continues to play an integral role in the global energy landscape today and in the future. This course will focus on the different forms and use of nuclear energy, the history of nuclear energy and regulation, the fundamentals of fission and fusion nuclear power, the radiological health applications, and the electromagnetic and other radiation in the environment. Students will also learn about federal and international policies and regulations that govern the civilian use of nuclear energy and implications for climate mitigation. Current events related to nuclear power at the international level will also be covered in the course. Prerequisite: AS.425.601 – Principles and Applications of Energy Technology or permission of instructor.

Economic Security Concentration Electives

This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

Transnational organized crime often is not well understood because crime is most often conceptualized as a domestic legal concern. However, transnational organized crime is more than that. It is crime ordered into complex clandestine networks that operates transnationally with little regard for the borders of states. The gravity of the problem lies not only in the increasing complexity of these organizations, but more importantly, with the serious challenge they pose in their ability to penetrate and operate with relative impunity in several states simultaneously. These illegal enterprises not only threaten aspects of state sovereignty and security that traditionally have been taken for granted, but they prove the permeability of national borders and the vulnerability of state institutions. This course will examine a variety of transnational organized criminal groups, their modus operandi, and their illicit activities. It also will focus on some domestic organized crime groups both to provide a depth of understanding of the operations of organized criminal activity in different countries, as well as to show how international groups can make inroads into domestic markets if they cooperate with local groups.

Corruption is ubiquitous. It is a universal phenomenon that has always been around and that can be found almost anywhere. Recent years have seen much focus on the relationship between it and democratic governance. Indeed corruption and politics more generally, are inextricably and universally entwined. In this seminar we will take an in-depth look at the relationship between the two. We will ask: What is Corruption? Is it always the same thing everywhere, or does it vary depending on context or place? Do pork barrel politics and political clientelism count as corruption? What are the implications of corruption? Is it necessarily always a bad thing or can it be beneficial? Is the corruption experienced in developed countries qualitatively different from that in developing ones such that democracy suffers more in developing countries? We will seek to answer these and other questions by taking a critical look at the politics of corruption. We will look at the origins, extent, character and significance of corruption from both a developed and developing country perspective. We will cover various theories relating to corruption as well as look at a number of empirical cases.

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

The multiple crises plaguing the world today make evident the mutual inter-dependence and vulnerability of people and nations. The idea of human security has gained increasing significance within this increasingly complex and interconnected world. Human security places emphasis on the security needs of individual citizens, rather than being preoccupied by traditional, state-centric conceptions of security. It takes into account the impact of security threats such as economic crises, pandemics, and climate change on the lives of individuals within and across national boundaries. The course thus draws attention to alternative interpretations of what constitute security threats and how to contend with the underlying causes of volatility and human insecurity that prevail around the world.

(Formerly Overview of Global Public and Nonprofit Relationship). This course provides an overview of the role of both national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in processes of development, humanitarian response, and the promotion of human rights and active citizenship. The last decade has been one of rapid change in which NGO relationships with government, the private sector, and donors has been in a state of flux, with unprecedented challenges raised about the legitimacy and effectiveness of NGO actors. The course will look at how systemic changes the evolution of transnational advocacy, the aid effectiveness process, the emergence of new development actors from countries (such as India, China and Brazil) to the primacy of the private sector has influenced NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

Political risk affects almost every major decision that governments, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and even individuals make, sometimes turning what appears to be a good decision into a bad one, with severe implications. However, few people really understand political risk or how it can be evaluated and mitigated. The goals of this course are to ensure that all students can assess the political risk of a particular country or situation; assess the political risk of a particular business investment; take a much broader perspective on the possible sources of political risk; understand how the way people think and groups function preclude effective decision making (thus making bad decisions more common); evaluate risks using a variety of different risk assessment tools; and leverage a variety of mechanisms to improve risk management.

As China's role on the international stage continues to grow, how will its behavior affect the dynamics of global peace and security? Beijing has long espoused a principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, but China is becoming a more central player in efforts to address global security challenges. China's diplomatic outreach in Afghanistan and the Middle East, economic investments in Pakistan and Burma, increased participation in peacekeeping operations, and more vocal presence in multilateral institutions all reflect the country’s expanding influence. Students will put themselves into the position of national security leaders in China, in the United States, and in third countries to explore a range of national interests, priorities, objectives, strategies, and policy tools.

Since World War II, American trade policy has been implemented through agreements with a growing array of foreign governments to encourage global economic integration by lowering barriers to international trade. The course will begin with a look at the foundation of this approach to trade policy at the end of World War II and the relationship the Roosevelt and Truman administrations saw between integration and security policy. It will then introduce students to the American trade regime of the early 21st century and the WTO, and examine the ways the U.S. governments has adapted this regime to regional challenges arising from relationships with Japan, China, and the Muslim world, and to policy issues, like resource dependence, sanctions and export controls. The course will have a midterm exam on America’s trade regime and the concepts that have shaped it, and a final paper, in which students will examine an issue of their choice in depth. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

The course examines how terrorist groups finance their operations. It also explores current policy approaches to curb financial support to terrorists through the application of U.S. and international sanctions, in particular how multilateral fora, such as the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, disrupt and deter terrorist financing. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of the key tools, including law enforcement, diplomacy, and intelligence, that are used to counter terrorists’ financial networks and activities. Through this course, students will develop proficiency in a series of analytic methods used to study terrorist financing and counter financing. Students will use structured analytic tools such as weighted ranking methods, scenario trees, causal flow diagramming, hypothesis testing, and utility analysis, as well as game theory and logic to form analytic judgments. Prior coursework or professional experience in intelligence, (counter) terrorism, or finance recommended.

What makes some countries grow while others do not? What accounts for successful economic development versus stagnation? As these questions become ever more relevant in an increasingly globalized world, this course offers an introduction to the topic. The class will provide an overview of the main classic and current theories of economic development. It will then go on to explore specific current issues in development, including: development aid, role of international organizations, sustainable development, corruption, institution building and regime type. Specific case studies will be examined including China and India, the East Asian 'tigers', development failures in Africa and mixed outcomes in Latin America.

The course is designed to introduce students to the process by which environmental policy can be implemented as law in the international sphere. “Law of the Sea” formed the foundation of modern public international law. It also represents the world’s first efforts to define and regulate a “global commons” and to grapple with the management of resources as the “common heritage of mankind”. Topics explored include freedom of navigation on the high seas, the limits on port-state jurisdiction over foreign vessels, and the scope of coastal nations’ power to regulate activities in their respective territorial waters, “contiguous zones”, and “exclusive economic zones”. The course also examines how the UNCLOS regime functions in tandem with other treaties, customary international law, the role of voluntary standards (such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International and International Organization for Standardization (ISO)) and domestic law in addressing specific current issues - including management of living and nonliving resources on the Continental Shelf, deep seabed mining, reduction of pollution, protection of highly migratory fish stocks, aquaculture, “marine dead zones”, and the future of ocean policy.

Climate change impacts and policies effect different groups of people in varying ways. More vulnerable populations will disproportionately experience impacts more severely (drought, flooding, food security, storms, heat islands, changes to resources and livelihoods). Also, policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change will have differential impacts. In this course, we will review both climate impacts and proposed policies through the lens of equity and justice. Topics to cover will include: analysis of differential impacts, equity critique of mitigation policies, and the impact of adaptation policies on the poor and people of color. The course will cover both the US and international topics.

Covering over 70% of our planet, the ocean produces half the planet’s oxygen, absorbs a quarter of all carbon dioxide emissions, feeds 3 billion people, and contributes $3 trillion per year to the global economy. Yet, we know more about the moon’s surface than we do about the bottom of the ocean. What we do know, however, is that overfishing, pollution, land-use change, and ocean warming and acidification, to name a few, are causing marine biodeterioration and threatening the ability of the ocean to sustain global systems critical for life. This course will provide students with a robust scientific approach to the study of oceans with a focus on environmental issues, governance and social-ecological systems.

This is an interdisciplinary course that examines the history of human interactions with ocean environments, current ocean sustainability issues, and real-world examples of how to advance ocean conservation practices and theories in the future. Students will investigate approaches to protect ocean ecosystems, to promote innovation in ocean governance, and to increase scientific knowledge, research and technology that supports ocean health. This course provides a holistic and systems-based view of how human interactions influence ocean functions and of innovative policies and sustainable management solutions to social and environmental problems stemming from those interactions.

Further on Electives

This is not a comprehensive list of electives; rather, it is a sampling.

After consultation with their advisor, students may also take up to two relevant courses offerings in the School of Public Health, the School of Advanced International Studies, and other graduate programs in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

Sequence of Study

Students take 470.603 Introduction to Global Security Studies in their first semester. This course exposes students to the basic concepts that are important to the field of global security studies and allows them to apply these tools to selected security issues. In the other core classes, which should be taken early on, students use these intellectual tools as they explore the three pillars of the degree: strategic studies, energy, and environmental security, and economic security.

In their second or third semester, students take 470.851 Introduction to Qualitative Methods, the first step in the research study process. After that, students take either 470.854 Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods or 470.853 Historical Methods. With this sound basis in methodology, students are prepared to write a journal article-length study in their final semester when they take 470.855 Research Study Seminar. Students must successfully defend their research study in order to graduate.

Students may pursue an area of concentration in one of the fields listed above. An area of concentration requires that at least four of the elective courses be from the list approved for that concentration. All concentration courses also count as general electives for students not pursuing an area of concentration.

STATE-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR ONLINE PROGRAMS

Students should be aware of state-specific information for online programs. For more information, please contact an admissions representative.

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