Students will take Introduction to Global Security Studies in their first semester. This course will expose students to the basic concepts that are important to the field of global security studies and allow them to apply these tools to selected security issues such as terrorism, climate change, and the causes of war. In the other core classes, which should be taken early on, students use these intellectual tools as they explore the three pillars of the degree: strategic studies, energy and environmental security, and economic security.

In their second or third semester, students should take Introduction to Qualitative Methods, the first step in the research study process. After that, students should take either Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods, Quantitative Methods, or Historical Methods. With this sound basis in methodology, students will be prepared to write a journal article-length study in their final semester when they take Research Study Seminar.

Most electives are focused on the three pillars of the degree and on corresponding concentrations.

Core Courses

Select four.
Note: Introduction to Global Security Studies, Global Political Economy, and Military Strategy and National Policy are required as Core Courses.

This course introduces students to the basic concepts of global security studies, including theories of international relations, perception and misperception, theories of foreign policy, the varying concepts of security, and the elements of national power. It also includes a brief introduction to social movement theory. It applies these conceptual tools to selected security issues.

In the wake of the financial crisis, bank bailouts, and stimulus plans, the relationship between American economic power and national security is especially salient. In this course, students investigate core topics in international political economy, analyzing the security implications of each. Topics include trade relations, international finance, monetary relations, poverty, and development. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies. Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

This course examines how states (primarily the United States) and other political entities harness military capabilities to pursue of policy objectives. It exposes students to levels of strategy—grand strategy, strategy, operations, and tactics—in a national security context. The course will then focus on the practical implications and unique characteristics of military strategy. Students will critically examine topics such as civil-military relations, land warfare, naval warfare, theories of airpower, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and nuclear warfare. The goal is to understand the embedded assumptions of the various theories, the characteristics of the military capabilities animated by them, and, through discussion and case studies, the strengths and limitations of each.

This course examines the nexus of energy, natural resources, and the environment with conflict, war, terrorism, crime, development, diplomacy, politics, and technology. Students critically examine the ways that increased competition for environmental and energy resources, strained resources, and changing conditions can threaten national security. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

Research Study Courses

Select three.
Note: Qualitative Methods in Social Science and the Research Study Seminar are required Research Study Courses.

This course is the first in the Research Study sequence for the Global Security Studies program. The goals of this course are: 1) to help students be producers of scholarly knowledge, 2) to prepare students for later parts of the research study process, and 3) to prepare students to understand and critique others’ uses of various methods. The first part of the course will address fundamental issues, such as measurement, causation, and inference. The second part of the course will address research design, data collection, and analysis, focusing on specific methodological tools including case study analysis, interviews, content analysis, participant observation, survey research, etc.

The main purpose of this class is to train students to be informed consumers of quantitative studies, in addition to teaching the tools of basic statistical work. The emphasis in this class is on application and understanding of existing results, rather than on theory or derivations. The course material will cover basic descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and data collection. The key learning objective is for students to finish the class with a better understanding of the statistical and econometric results they may encounter, both in papers they read in other classes, as well as in the course of their work. The second key objective is for students to have the skills to employ basic quantitative tools in their own work in the fields of public policy and global security studies. As much as possible, assignments and readings used in class will be drawn from the public policy and security fields. There is no mathematical or statistical pre-requisite for the class. (Core course for the MA in Public Management and the MA in Global Security Studies.)

Developing solutions to policy problems increasingly requires a data-driven approach. Government agencies analyze data to evaluate programs. Research organizations use data to better understand policy effects. Private companies analyze data to develop their policy positions. This course will provide students with the knowledge and skills needed to perform a cutting-edge statistical analysis. Students will learn how to design and test regression models using Stata, an incredibly powerful and widely used statistical software package. Other topics include interaction terms, measures of fit, internal and external validity, logistic and probit regression, and translating statistical findings for broad audiences. The focus of the course will be on using statistical methods in an applied manner; we will concentrate on using statistics to answer meaningful policy questions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics

Historians reclaim, recover, and revise what we know about the past. They enter a dialog with the dead to make sense of our world for the living, knowing full well that their hard-earned results may be overturned with new data, analysis, or insights. Yet questionable or flawed “history” is routinely to justify a range of experiences, policies, and events. In this course, we instill the key skills and analytical framework in which historians use to uncover and recreate the past, taking the journey from question, to research (onsite and online), to argument and revision (and revisionism). The importance of argument, objectivity, personal and temporal bias, evidence, narrative and cultural context are examined in detail, along with case studies of history being used, misused, and abused by historians and other actors.

(Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies). This course is designed for students who have already passed 470.851 Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Social Science and either 470.854 Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods or 470.853 Historical Methods (or 470.709 Quantitative Methods with permission from program director). In this class, students will begin and complete a substantial piece of original research explicitly drawing on research methods they learned in the previous two classes. The research study is expected to be methodologically sound and to make a useful contribution to the issue under study. Class meetings are designed to give guidance in the clarification of issues, collection of data, assembly of various parts, and writing. The class will also prepare students for final defense. Graduation is subject to approval of the research study by the committee. Students should come into the class prepared with a detailed research question. Students may enroll in this course only in their last semester of the MA program.

Electives

In addition to the required courses, students must take five elective courses. Please note that each elective is not scheduled each semester.

This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

This course provides an overview of the manifold challenges and opportunities for United States security in the current disordered and changing world. It aims to help students assess why events occur and what policies are developed in response. In that endeavor, the course has three major objectives. First, the course will review the major perspectives on, and debates about, U.S. security and the institutions through which policy is made and executed. Second, the course will review some U.S. security issues through scholarly, policy, political, and historical lenses. Third, the course will help students write for both policy and academic audiences. This course is not open to students who have had 470.606 American National Security.

This course is designed to introduce students to the public policymaking process, to the basics of policy analysis, and to the substance of some of today’s major policy debates. The first half of the course focuses on establishing a framework in which to analyze public policy formulation within the United States. The class also reviews the tools for developing and implementing policy. The second half of the course turns to policy analysis of some critical contemporary issues. Building on earlier readings, we will study current debates in economic/tax policy, education, health care, social security, and national security. (Core requirement for the MA in Public Management. Elective option for Government. Analytics students)

This course provide an overview of the principal areas important to the study of terrorism. The course offers a variety of academic, policy, and operational models, theories, approaches, and concepts regarding the definitions of terrorism, the nature and functioning of various terrorist groups across the globe, and a variety of domestic and international governmental operational and policy responses. Through this exploration, students will be able to identify patterns of behavior of both terrorist groups and governmental responses, and will also be able to identify gaps, and principal areas of improvements in how we understand, and respond to this important security challenge.

This class will examine the role of Congress in the making of American foreign policy. In particular, this class will discuss the role of Congress in war powers, economic sanctions, human rights advocacy, the approval of international agreements including treaties, international affairs budgets and spending, investigations and oversight of the conduct of foreign policy by the executive branch as well as the impact of Congress on the general direction of American foreign policies and priorities. Special attention will be given to the role of Congress in U.S. policy toward Iran over the past few decades, the use of military force in Iraq and Syria, the role of the legislative branch in U.S policy toward China and Taiwan and the promotion of human rights as a component of American foreign policy. The class will seek to examine the specific actions of Congress on these matters, and their causes and consequences. The class will use books, articles and original source material from committee deliberations and floor action. As we examine these topics, we will come back to larger themes – the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, the impact of partisan and bureaucratic politics, and the changing role of the United States on the world stage. All this will be discussed with a mind to the role of foreign policy practitioners.

The South Asian region, with its complex historical context, a large and diverse population, and contested national borders, especially between nuclearized countries, poses some of the toughest security challenges facing the world. This course highlights salient security challenges in South Asia, and draws out their implications for U.S. strategic interests. It examines the sources and implications of the rivalry between nuclearized India and Pakistan, and how it fuels Sino-Indian security competition. Attention is drawn to the sources of militancy in India, and to the threats to international and regional security arising from the conflict in Afghanistan. The Sri Lankan Tamil Tiger insurgency and its eventual defeat in 2009 are also discussed, alongside the rising Islamist militancy threats in Bangladeshi, and the history of Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Finally, some of the climate-based threats to which no South Asian country is immune will also be discussed.

Transnational organized crime often is not well understood because crime is most often conceptualized as a domestic legal concern. However, transnational organized crime is more than that. It is crime ordered into complex clandestine networks that operates transnationally with little regard for the borders of states. The gravity of the problem lies not only in the increasing complexity of these organizations, but more importantly, with the serious challenge they pose in their ability to penetrate and operate with relative impunity in several states simultaneously. These illegal enterprises not only threaten aspects of state sovereignty and security that traditionally have been taken for granted, but they prove the permeability of national borders and the vulnerability of state institutions. This course will examine a variety of transnational organized criminal groups, their modus operandi, and their illicit activities. It also will focus on some domestic organized crime groups both to provide a depth of understanding of the operations of organized criminal activity in different countries, as well as to show how international groups can make inroads into domestic markets if they cooperate with local groups.

Artificial intelligence is rapidly improving for well-defined tasks and narrow intelligence. But will AI ever have human-like general intelligence? This course is designed to answer this complex question by giving students a working knowledge of the underlying principles and mechanisms of human behavior and cognition. Key topics to be addressed include vision, audition, language, emotion, memory, creativity, and consciousness. We will use current and future advancements in big data and AI as a backdrop for critical and creative analysis.

This course examines the open source research discipline (often called open source intelligence or OSINT), and is primarily concerned with how open source research helps a diverse mix of actors achieve their goals. It is designed to help students develop open source research skills that can have broad utility in their academic and professional careers while considering such topics as how these skills empower governments and a range of nongovernmental actors, including private companies, international aid agencies, and even terrorist groups. In addition to gaining experience applying tools and techniques utilized by OSINT professionals to perform independent research and participate in collaborative exercises, students will become familiar with ethical and legal issues which influence the design of open source research in academic settings.

This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of issues such as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security. Not only are transnational security issues varied in nature and scope, but their effects often are obscured by the fact that many are nascent with gradual and long-term consequences. Further, while some transnational issues may not constitute direct threats to global security, they may threaten the world economy, and quality of life of its citizens. Still others compound and reinforce each other, generating mutations of the original threats. This course will examine a small number of these transnational security issues and relevant policy-making efforts.

In this course students will develop expertise in using the tools necessary to collect, analyze, and visualize large amounts of text. The course begins with a hands-on introduction to the programming concepts necessary to collect and process textual data. The course then proceeds to cover key statistical concepts in machine learning and statistics that are used to analyze text as data. Throughout the course, students will develop a research project that culminates in the display of results from a large-scale textual analysis. Prerequisite: 407.681 Probability and Statistics

Much of international politics in the last century can be described as a conflict between liberal democracy and its modern critics. During this period the values and political structures of liberal democracy have been extended to more parts of the world than ever before. Yet the same era also saw the emergence of powerful challengers to liberal democracy from both the right and the left. The resulting clash of ideologies defined such conflicts as World War II and the Cold War. In this course we will survey the intellectual roots of Fascism, National Socialism, and Communism. We will also examine the question of Islam and democracy looking at both its proponents and its radical critics in the Islamic world. Among those whose writings we will examine are Karl Marx, V.I. Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Carl Schmitt, Charles Maurras, Syed Qutb, Ali Shariati, Muktedar Khan, and Ruhollah Khomeini. This course counts towards the Security Studies concentration.

The federal budget process is an enormously complex mixture of administrative routines and mechanisms designed to bias decisions, avoid blame, or reduce conflict. This course explores the structures of federal budgeting in terms of its varied goals and in the context of the wider governing process. The course will review the budgetary process in both the executive and congressional branching, as well as the interaction of those two systems. In order to gain understanding of the difficult policy choices and political pressures policymakers face, students will be asked to do a simulation of a budget process within the executive branch. The role of entitlements, scoring issues, and tax policy will be examined in the context of the debate over budget policy. The course will start with a short primer on finance theory. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management. Elective option for Government Analytics students.)

This class will examine the interplay between the laws and the practices and policies of the United States’ Intelligence Community and national security system, both foreign and domestic. While discussion of the history of intelligence activities and laws dating from the origins of our colonial days will necessarily shape the framework of the class, the focus shall particularly be on current debates and challenges faced by the United States in the 21st Century.

Corruption is ubiquitous. It is a universal phenomenon that has always been around and that can be found almost anywhere. Recent years have seen much focus on the relationship between it and democratic governance. Indeed corruption and politics more generally, are inextricably and universally entwined. In this seminar we will take an in-depth look at the relationship between the two. We will ask: What is Corruption? Is it always the same thing everywhere, or does it vary depending on context or place? Do pork barrel politics and political clientelism count as corruption? What are the implications of corruption? Is it necessarily always a bad thing or can it be beneficial? Is the corruption experienced in developed countries qualitatively different from that in developing ones such that democracy suffers more in developing countries? We will seek to answer these and other questions by taking a critical look at the politics of corruption. We will look at the origins, extent, character and significance of corruption from both a developed and developing country perspective. We will cover various theories relating to corruption as well as look at a number of empirical cases.

Russia plays a key role in most international issues and openly campaigns to realign the international system away from what it sees as American domination. This course considers the substance and process of Russian national security policy. It acquaints students with the main instruments and mechanisms available to Russian leaders to advance the country’s national interests and key policy priorities. The course considers how Russia formulates and conducts its national security policy, the history that informs it, the political culture that sustain it, the ideas and interests that drive it, and the people and institutions responsible for it. The course addresses Russia’s role in key global and regional issues and its relations with major powers. It places special emphasis on the wars in Ukraine and Syria, Russian concepts of information war, and on Russian military reform.

This course will comprise a comprehensive examination of what deterrence is and what it will require in the 21st century. It will seek to grapple with and provide insights on a range of fundamental questions of theoretical and policy import including, What comprises deterrence in the years ahead?; How should decision makers understand the many new relevant domains and capabilities (not just nuclear, but space, cyber, missile defenses, advanced conventional) in which deterrence issues and concerns may well have to be paramount in their minds?; What are the roles and requirements of extended deterrence in the emerging geopolitical environment?; How might deterrence come to play in emerging areas such as hybrid warfare?; How might deterrence fail?; and What are the intentional and unintentional escalation paths and dynamics, including cross-domain dynamics, likely to be at work in crises and conflicts ahead?

This course considers the evolution of the presidency from its creation by the founders who had “their fingers crossed” while contemplating an executive agent for the emerging government, to its contemporary massive presence in our political system. The class also examines the interactions of the president with the other branches of government—Congress and the Courts—as well as the dynamics and management challenges presented within the executive branch itself. The course focuses on the leadership attributes of effective presidents, as well as aspects of personality or “character” that influence presidential performance. Finally the class focuses on the power and influence exerted by the presidency in domestic public policy and in foreign affairs. Students will be encouraged to develop their own ideas of what makes a great president ion the 21st century.

This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

This course will explore some of the most contested and controversial aspects in contemporary security studies. There are a number of contentious and wide-ranging debates around ideas like radicalization not least concerning its definition, causes, and effects. This course will also prompt you to consider broader issues, such as whether there is a causal link between extremism and violent extremism? Why do some radicalized individuals to embrace terrorism, when other don’t? And should security officials concern themselves with radicalization, or only with its violent offshoots? This course will unpack many of these debates, exploring academic and theoretical literature surrounding the issues of radicalization, recruitment, and deradicalization in modern terrorist networks. It will focus primarily on cases in Europe and the United States, while also exploring new phenomena such as homegrown, self-starter, and lone wolf terrorism.

The multiple crises plaguing the world today make evident the mutual inter-dependence and vulnerability of people and nations. The idea of human security has gained increasing significance within this increasingly complex and interconnected world. Human security places emphasis on the security needs of individual citizens, rather than being preoccupied by traditional, state-centric conceptions of security. It takes into account the impact of security threats such as economic crises, pandemics, and climate change on the lives of individuals within and across national boundaries. The course thus draws attention to alternative interpretations of what constitute security threats and how to contend with the underlying causes of volatility and human insecurity that prevail around the world.

Machine learning and, more broadly, artificial intelligence, has recently had a series of unprecedented successes in performing tasks such as image recognition and autonomously playing video games at a higher level of accuracy and performance than humans. These successes are driven by accelerated developments in machine learning, notably neural networks. This course covers a variety of machine learning algorithms from linear regression to nonlinear neural networks. Students will learn to implement these algorithms and understand how they work. Further, students will learn how to select and implement an appropriate algorithm depending on the type of dataset they have, and will be able to use the algorithm to generate predictions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis This course will cover a variety of machine learning algorithms from linear regression to nonlinear neural networks. Students will learn to implement these algorithms and understand how they work. Further, students will learn how to select and implement an appropriate algorithm depending on the type of dataset they have, and will be able to use the algorithm to generate predictions.

Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis.

IMPORTANT: Students are REQUIRED to bring a laptop to class; the laptop should be a PC or Mac laptop (not chromebook) with 4GB RAM (preferably 8GB) minimum. Please contact the instructor with questions..

Overuse is not the only problem with the maxim that American “politics stop at the water’s edge.” The slogan has simply never been true. American foreign policy has always been a result not just of the crises and opportunities the nation has faced but its unique politics and policy processes. American national interests are determined through the democratic processes established by the Constitution and other legislation and affected by the politics that drive the nation’s elections, its conversations and its foreign policies. These politics and processes have been remarkably consistent since the founding even as the nation’s interests have grown significantly. A better understanding of both the politics and processes of American foreign policy will help students appreciate how the country’s policies are made today and will be made in the future.

The demand for robust and resilient risk management practices is increasing in the public sector as organizations continue to struggle with explicitly integrating risks into their executive decision making processes. OMB’s recent revision of A-123 places additional pressure on this imperative. The objective of this course is to introduce students to fundamental risk management and measurement practices and demonstrate their relevance to the government sector. It will help students understand risk management principles and practices and how they might apply to their organization. The goal is to give students a comprehensive view of both the risk management processes and some of the key measurement tools for understanding and mitigating operational, credit, market and enterprise risks exposures.

This course instructs students in various visualization techniques and software, including R, Tableau, and vector graphics software (e.g., Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape). Students will learn how to ask interesting questions about politics; identify data that can be used to answer those questions; collect, clean and document the data; explore and analyze the data with statistical and graphical techniques; and create compelling, informative and accurate visualizations and present these visualizations to educated audiences. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics

No topic has captured the public imagination of late quite so dramatically as the specter of global jihadism. While much has been said about the way jihadists behave, their ideology remains poorly understood. This course aims to help students explore the intellectual development of jihadist ideology, focusing on how conflict has shaped Islamic theology and law. We go from the movement’s origins in the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the jihadist insurgencies of the 1990s and the 9/11 wars. What emerges is the story of a pragmatic but resilient warrior doctrine that often struggles, as so many utopian ideologies do, to consolidate the idealism of theory with the reality of practice.

Drawing on the social movement literature, this course examines the emergence of irregular armed groups and their decisions to use violence. It explains how social movements turnviolent, how violence dictates their nature, and what this nature can tell us in terms of group strengths and weaknesses. It provides the students with the analytical tools needed to distinguish between terrorism, insurgency, and crime – by focusing and understanding group strategies, behavior, and capabilities. Students will thus be familiarized with the theory on armed group formation and evolution – but the course goes further, by counterposing such theory to the complexities of practice through the consideration of key case studies. The course ends with an overview of state strategies intended to counter a wide variety of threats. Particular attention is paid to the notion of operational art and lines of effort to underline the potential and meaning of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency.

This course introduces students to the fundamentals of statistical analysis as well as the R programming language and RStudio environment. Students will learn the building blocks of descriptive and causal inference, including summary statistics, survey sampling, measurement, hypothesis testing, linear regression and probability theory. Students will also learn how to create data visualizations in R, including times series plots, scatter plots and bar graphs. In addition, students will focus on interpreting statistical findings and presenting results in a compelling manner. By the end of the course, students will be able to conduct a statistical analysis to answer a meaningful policy question and will be prepared to take more advanced methods courses. Prerequisites: none

Change is perennial in national security and military affairs, but knowing how, why, and when to embrace change is both difficult and vital. Strategies and tactics may be outdated, new ideas may be resisted, and science and technology continue to change our world faster than we can optimize. The paradox deepens with context: innovation in peacetime has one logic while innovation in war has another. This course unravels the nature of change in military affairs through four themes: ideas, materials, human capital and structure, and, appreciation of the enemy. The course explores these themes through a series of case studies from around the world. Topics include civilian development/military application of science and technology; learning from failure and success (including from other nations); institutional reactions to change; procurement and the role of industry; and, the impact and limitations of individual “champions” of change.

What are the political forces that shape the contemporary Congress and how does Congress, in turn, re-shape American politics? This course considers how political, social, and technological changes outside the institution help to explain contemporary congressional politics. Topics include: Congress’s role in the separation of powers; its responsiveness to interest groups, ideology, and partisanship; competitiveness in congressional elections and constituency representation; and contemporary media politics.

Bridging the divide between political science theories of policymaking and the actual workings of the policy process in the institutions of national government, this course examines the individual contributions of each of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government as well as the interactions and struggles between those branches. How do these various institutions set the policy agenda, develop and deliberate policy alternatives, make authoritative policy decisions, and implement those decisions? In what ways are the interactions between these institutions best considered conflict or cooperation? Also, how do outside actors and institutions -- the media, interest groups, public opinion, parties and campaigns -- affect policymaking in these various institutional settings? Drawing on the Constitutional design and historical development of these institutions as well as contemporary practice, this course examines the purposes, processes, and outcomes of policymaking from an institutional perspective.

(Formerly Overview of Global Public and Nonprofit Relationship). This course provides an overview of the role of both national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in processes of development, humanitarian response, and the promotion of human rights and active citizenship. The last decade has been one of rapid change in which NGO relationships with government, the private sector, and donors has been in a state of flux, with unprecedented challenges raised about the legitimacy and effectiveness of NGO actors. The course will look at how systemic changes the evolution of transnational advocacy, the aid effectiveness process, the emergence of new development actors from countries (such as India, China and Brazil) to the primacy of the private sector has influenced NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

This course examines how states (primarily the United States) and other political entities harness military capabilities to pursue of policy objectives. It exposes students to levels of strategy—grand strategy, strategy, operations, and tactics—in a national security context. The course will then focus on the practical implications and unique characteristics of military strategy. Students will critically examine topics such as civil-military relations, land warfare, naval warfare, theories of airpower, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and nuclear warfare. The goal is to understand the embedded assumptions of the various theories, the characteristics of the military capabilities animated by them, and, through discussion and case studies, the strengths and limitations of each.

This course uses the comparative method to look at the varieties of democracies that exist today. In the course, we will ask what is democracy, how do we measure it, and how does it vary across space and time? We will look at how democracy manifests in different constitutional forms e.g. parliamentary versus presidential. We will examine how different electoral and party systems influence variation in outcome within the set of democracies, and how social cleavages interact with, and are molded by, these systems. Further, we will use the answers to these questions to explore the issue of democratic consolidation and to ask why some countries become and stay democratic, while others do not. Case studies will be drawn from Europe, Latin America and Asia.

This course introduces students to big data management systems such as the Hadoop system, MongoDB, Amazon AWS, and Microsoft Azure. The course covers the basics of the Apache Hadoop platform and Hadoop ecosystem; the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS); MapReduce; common big data tools such as Pig (a procedural data processing language for Hadoop parallel computation), Hive (a declarative SQL-like language to handle Hadoop jobs), HBase (the most popular NoSQL database), and YARN. MongoDB is a popular NoSQL database that handles documents in a free schema design, which gives the developer great flexibility to store and use data. We cover aspects of the cloud computing model with respect to virtualization, multitenancy, privacy, security, and cloud data management.

Prerequisite: 470.763 Database Management Systems

Technology Requirements: A 64-bit computer with a chip that supports virtualization (set via BIOS) Windows Operating System 7, 8, or 10 At least 8 Gb of Physical RAM Oracle VirtualBox version 4.2 (free) Please be in touch with the instructor with questions about the technology requirements.

(The purpose of the class is to help equip students to operate effectively in both the public and private sectors. The class will cover three major topics: (1) an overview of managing public and private organizations, with special attention to their differing missions, capabilities, and environments; (2) a survey of important relationships between the public and private sectors; and (3) the need for improved coordination between the public and private sectors to achieve important public purposes. Students will be encouraged to make the course an interactive one and to share their personal knowledge in the context of the issues discussed. Students will be expected to complete a significant paper on a relevant topic approved by the instructor. (Core course for the MA in Public Management and the MA in Government/MBA program)

This course will seek to give students a deeper understanding of where the idea of American exceptionalism comes from and what its implications are for America, both domestically and abroad. Students will gain this understanding from reading classic works in the area that trace America’s political development, starting with its Puritan heritage. Early American works will be studied from this period, along with Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. Seminal works of modern political science scholarship on this question will also be assigned, including works from Seymour Martin Lipset, Louis Hartz, Daniel Boorstin, and others. The course will then extrapolate from these historic roots to contemporary issues of America’s foreign policy and rationale for its foreign interventions. The course will conclude with questions of America’s standing in the world, which has in recent years, declined and seek to understand why this is so and what it means for the future understanding of American exceptionalism.

Congress is the First Branch, “the People’s Branch,” and one of the most powerful legislatures the world has ever known. At this moment in history, however, the people do not assess the institution favorably and political scientists and pundits have declared it the “broken branch.” Is Congress “broken” or merely reflective of our political times? In an era of “unorthodox lawmaking” is a return to “regular order” and “textbook lawmaking” realistic or a fantasy? This course will discuss these questions in the context of the evolving nature of Congress as an institution. The class will examine the institutional development of Congress and explore changes in its representative and legislative functions, as well as constitutional responsibility of holding the “power of the purse.” Congress remains a dynamic institution and it behooves citizens to understand its complexity and centrality to governance in the U.S.

This class applies data analytic skills to the urban context, analyzing urban problems and datasets. Students will develop the statistical skills to complete data-driven analytical projects using data from city agencies, federal census data, and other sources, including NGOs that work with cities. We will examine a variety of data sets and research projects both historical and contemporary that examine urban problems from a quantitative perspective. Over the course of the term, each student will work on a real-world urban data problem, developing the project from start to finish, including identifying the issue, developing the research project, gathering data, analyzing the data, and producing a finished research paper. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics

This class examines the phenomenon of irregular warfare—of insurgencies and counterinsurgencies in particular—through a historical lens. The course will give you students insight into the origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of irregular wars, as well as the principles of counterinsurgency theory and practice. Through the course, you will analyze current irregular wars, understand what caused them and whether they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful, and see how they can be combated.

This course familiarizes students with the general contours of US national security strategy and military policy from the First World War through the so-called “Long War” era of Iraq and Afghanistan. The United States has a long, complex, and increasingly dysfunctional relationship with the use of violence in pursuit of policy aims (war). The institutions of the United States with responsibility for war-making have, over the past century, been shaped by powerful forces of change and continuity as the US adapts to the evolving character of war. Students will develop an appreciation for these factors that have shaped US security policy since WWI, be able to frame current policy debates in that context, and be able to forecast potential implications for the decades ahead.

This course offers a unique opportunity to work with leading British and American practitioners and academics from the security and intelligence worlds. It considers the claims of state secrecy, the threat of nuclear proliferation, of cyberattack, terrorism, the problems generated by the demand for regional security, and the security challenges of revolutions and governing diversity. Intelligence collection, analysis of the product, and its dissemination to customers remain at the core of the intelligence cycle. Counterintelligence and covert action play more opaque but still vital roles at the heart of the nation state. Understanding these perspectives, what intelligence can achieve, but also its limitations, are major themes. This four-week course is offered at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom.

Developing solutions to policy problems increasingly requires a data-driven approach. Government agencies analyze data to evaluate programs. Research organizations use data to better understand policy effects. Private companies analyze data to develop their policy positions. This course will provide students with the knowledge and skills needed to perform a cutting-edge statistical analysis. Students will learn how to design and test regression models using Stata, an incredibly powerful and widely used statistical software package. Other topics include interaction terms, measures of fit, internal and external validity, logistic and probit regression, and translating statistical findings for broad audiences. The focus of the course will be on using statistical methods in an applied manner; we will concentrate on using statistics to answer meaningful policy questions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics

This course builds upon the concepts taught in 470.709 Quantitative Methods. Students will learn how to construct and evaluate advanced regression models. Topics include experimental data, instrumental variables, panel data, matching and multiple imputation. In addition, you will learn how to use Latex, which is a document preparation system that allows you to incorporate mathematical language, tables and figures into a document in a user-friendly manner. Latex is also incredibly useful for managing references and preparing professional slide presentations. As a culminating project, students will critically evaluate a scholarly article that uses methods covered in the course. Prerequisite: 470.709 Quantitative Methods

War practitioners, policy makers, and security studies scholars study asymmetric warfare to understand why poorly armed insurgents effectively resist and even defeat technologically advanced and materially stronger armies. This course studies a perfect asymmetry in nonviolent warfare where unarmed ordinary people are able to effectively challenge and eventually defeat a fully armed, resource-rich regimes. In fact, historically, nonviolent movements have been twice as effective against violent regimes as armed insurgencies. This course will consider skills of organized populations in inter-state and intra-state conflicts, including anti-dictatorship, anti-occupation, anti-corruption, anti-violence struggles and analyze how disciplined civilians use nonviolent strategies and tactics to galvanize large and diverse participation, place their violent opponents in dilemma, make repression backfire and cause defections among adversaries' pillars of support.

This course covers the politics of Latin America from 1945 to the present. It is designed to introduce students to the academic study of contemporary Latin American politics. Students are required to apply comparative methods of analysis to contrast regimes and political phenomena beyond governments. Students are expected to compare the institutions, policies and development models of different governments and regimes, as well as the ideology, program, organizational structure and support base of different social movements and political parties. These comparisons enable students to explore both similarity and difference. Students may identify broad commonalities in the politics of a region that shares many cultural features and important structural constraints. However, they should also be aware of distinctions; including the important differences between Central America, the Andean region and the Southern Cone, as well as significant variations between neighboring states.

Many of the ideas which shape today´s world- democracy, liberalism, conservatism, capitalism, socialism, nationalism - have their roots in a "great conversation" (Robert Hutchins) that spans some 25 centuries from ancient Greece until today. The conversation motivating the Western tradition has included a set of perennial questions such as: Who ought to rule - and how do we decide? What is the purpose of politics? What is the best form of constitution? What makes political authority legitimate? What is political justice? What is citizenship? This course is intended as a broad survey of some the most influential political thinkers in the intellectual tradition of Europe and America. Among the many who will be examined are : Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, G.W.F. Hegel, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, Leo Strauss, and Hannah Arendt.

Political risk affects almost every major decision that governments, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and even individuals make, sometimes turning what appears to be a good decision into a bad one, with severe implications. However, few people really understand political risk or how it can be evaluated and mitigated. The goals of this course are to ensure that all students can assess the political risk of a particular country or situation; assess the political risk of a particular business investment; take a much broader perspective on the possible sources of political risk; understand how the way people think and groups function preclude effective decision making (thus making bad decisions more common); evaluate risks using a variety of different risk assessment tools; and leverage a variety of mechanisms to improve risk management.

As China's role on the international stage continues to grow, how will its behavior affect the dynamics of global peace and security? Beijing has long espoused a principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, but China is becoming a more central player in efforts to address global security challenges. China's diplomatic outreach in Afghanistan and the Middle East, economic investments in Pakistan and Burma, increased participation in peacekeeping operations, and more vocal presence in multilateral institutions all reflect the country’s expanding influence. Students will put themselves into the position of national security leaders in China, in the United States, and in third countries to explore a range of national interests, priorities, objectives, strategies, and policy tools.

This course addresses the legal, policy and cultural issues that challenge the government and its citizens in the increasingly complex technical environment of privacy. We will examine the challenges in balancing the need for information and data against the evolving landscape of individual privacy rights. The course will examine privacy at all levels: by analyzing the shifting views of individual privacy by citizens as well as the technological challenges in both protecting and analyzing personal information for government use. Using case studies and hypotheticals, we will discuss the issue of transparency in the government use and retention of data. The cases will range from Facebook to healthcare.gov to sunshine laws to national security uses of information. We will trace the development of legal and policy measures relevant to privacy concerns and envision future solutions needed in an era of great technological innovation including the use of big data. Prerequisite: none

This course focuses on organizational leadership strategies and the role of ethics within nonprofit and nongovernmental work specifically. A wide scope of ethical issues relevant to nonprofit and nongovernmental work will be reviewed, analyzed and discussed. NPOs/NGOs operate under specific ethical guidelines in order to ensure accountability to the public and their many stakeholders. This course will focus on ethical behavior within organizations and explore instances of when prominent NGO leaders and organizations have been situated to face ethical dilemmas. The course will cover a wide scope of management models, techniques, and organizational values and goals. It will also review the impact that various leadership styles have had on organizations through the study of case studies and what has amounted to optimal leadership effectiveness. In addition to learning strategies to lead high performance organizations ethically. This course will combine theory, practical applications, and technical skills that will strengthen their ability to be strong leaders. Core course for the MA in NGO Management.

Quickly accelerating changes in the ways we get our news are compelling newsmakers and journalists alike to rethink their craft, and their relationships with their audiences, with repercussions for policy, politics and public discourse. This course will examine how innovations – like social networking, mobile platforms, behavioral targeting, etc --are providing journalists and political leaders with new ways to interact with citizens. It will look at how the rapid migration of consumers to the web is leading news organizations of all types to rethink how they organize, pay for and think about themselves. Students in this course will use real time news developments in the nation’s capital as a laboratory for observing the evolving ways news sources and reporters and the public interact. Questions to be considered include whether this digitized and networked environment has implications for the pace and character of changes in public policy. The course will invite practitioners in journalism and politics who are dealing with these developments daily to share their sense of where all this is leading. This course counts towards the Political Communication Concentration.

Data analytics are an essential part of program and policy evaluation. Policymakers increasingly rely upon analytics when making critical policy decisions. In this course, students will conduct a variety of policy focused data analyses using R. Students will utilize a variety of descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques to inform the design and execution of a policy. Students will utilize data-driven analysis to produce policy memoranda in a variety of domains relevant to today’s practitioners. A good understanding of basic economics and statistics, and an understanding of American government institutions and programs, will be necessary for a student to participate effectively in the class discussions and complete the assignments.

A good understanding of basic economics and statistics, and an understanding of American government institutions and programs, will be necessary for a student to participate effectively in the class discussions and complete the assignments. Please contact the instructor with any questions.

Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

This course will provide an overview of current issues in the cyber realm, focusing on policy and conflict from a U.S. and international perspective. We will begin with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and consider the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through the use of case studies, we will examine previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. We will analyze the roles of several different types of cyber actors including state actors, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups and private sector/business responses. This course will also examine the issue of cyber deterrence, and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. A technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.

Many government agencies engage in data mining to detect unforeseen patterns and advanced analytics (such as classification techniques) to predict future outcomes. In this course, students will utilize IBM SPSS Modeler to investigate patterns and derive predictions in policy areas such as fraud, healthcare, fundraising, human resource and others. In addition, students will build segmentation models using clustering techniques in an applied manner. Integration with other statistical tools and visualization options will also be discussed. Prerequisite: 470.681 Probability and Statistics; Recommended: 470.709 Quantitative Methods

Since World War II, American trade policy has been implemented through agreements with a growing array of foreign governments to encourage global economic integration by lowering barriers to international trade. The course will begin with a look at the foundation of this approach to trade policy at the end of World War II and the relationship the Roosevelt and Truman administrations saw between integration and security policy. It will then introduce students to the American trade regime of the early 21st century and the WTO, and examine the ways the U.S. governments has adapted this regime to regional challenges arising from relationships with Japan, China, and the Muslim world, and to policy issues, like resource dependence, sanctions and export controls. The course will have a midterm exam on America’s trade regime and the concepts that have shaped it, and a final paper, in which students will examine an issue of their choice in depth. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

The course examines how terrorist groups finance their operations. It also explores current policy approaches to curb financial support to terrorists through the application of U.S. and international sanctions, in particular how multilateral fora, such as the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, disrupt and deter terrorist financing. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of the key tools, including law enforcement, diplomacy, and intelligence, that are used to counter terrorists’ financial networks and activities. Through this course, students will develop proficiency in a series of analytic methods used to study terrorist financing and counter financing. Students will use structured analytic tools such as weighted ranking methods, scenario trees, causal flow diagramming, hypothesis testing, and utility analysis, as well as game theory and logic to form analytic judgments. Prior coursework or professional experience in intelligence, (counter) terrorism, or finance recommended.

This course will provide the analytical and contextual skills required to understand the current political and security situation of Iran. After laying out the context of the Iranian Revolution through a brief examination of the Pahlavi years, the course then weaves together Iran’s political, military, diplomatic, social, economic development during the turbulent years between Iran’s 1978-1979 revolution and the 2015 nuclear agreement—covering a time period of roughly 1941 to the present day. This course covers three main inter-related topics: the history and development of the modern Iranian state; the interaction between state and society in modern Iran; and Iran’s diplomatic history in the 20th and 21st centuries. The course concludes with a discussion of Iran’s present-day foreign, security, and defense structures and processes.

This course examines the “fusion” of information gathering and sharing between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the 79 fusion centers in a Post-9/11 World. We will address federal, state, and international law enforcement jurisdictional issues, the balancing of privacy/civil liberties with information collection/dissemination, and overall assistance to state/local authorities during critical incidents. Students will address broad public policy and perception implications inherent in law enforcement activities. Students will also analyze and discuss case studies such as the Las Vegas Concert, the Orlando Night Club, and the San Bernardino shootings to illustrate the need for timely fusion of information between federal and state law enforcement. The readings and videos will include a variety of diverse and opposing viewpoints relative to law enforcement with practicums and simulations to allow debate in “real-world” situations. An important objective is to determine ways to improve upon the current law enforcement landscape and generate possible solutions to ensure seamless and timely information sharing while safeguarding individual rights.

This course examines the evolution of armed conflict in the Middle East over the past three decades and why the United States' conventional military dominance has not led to lasting strategic victory. Attention will be paid to how both states and non-state actors in the region have adjusted to America (and Israel)'s overwhelming conventional military superiority through deterrent strategies, asymmetric tactics (i.e. insurgency, terrorism, tunnel warfare), and exploitation of advanced commercial technologies (i.e. improvised explosive devices, UAVs, cyberwarfare, information operations) in lethal and/or strategic operations. Students will utilize "rationalist" and cultural frameworks to critically analyze these innovations across multiple conflicts/operations, including: Operations Iraqi Freedom and Inherent Resolve; various iterations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; the civil wars in Syria and Yemen; and strategic conflict between Iran and the United States (and Israel) . The course's objective is to provide a better understanding of the relationship between military technological capability and strategic success in modern conflict, and of the challenges U.S. policymakers may face in future conflicts both in the Middle East and globally against other great powers.

This course examines U.S. policy responses to the changing political and security landscape of the Middle East. Bringing together historical events, primary sources and secondary literature and contextual analysis, this course provides the analytical skills required to develop a sophisticated understanding of the current political and security situation in the Middle East. Students will engage key topics in modern Middle Eastern politics and security, including the origins of Islam, Arab nationalism and its rise to prominence, the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts, the internal/external struggles against Western imperialism, the competition among Arab states for regional dominance, the Cold War the Middle East, America’s relations with Iran and Iraq, the oil economy of the Gulf, the challenge minorities pose to the region, the rise of Islamic radicalism, the Arab Spring, and the rise and fall of the Islamic State.

Intelligence analysis is fundamentally about understanding and communicating to decision makers what is known, not known, and surmised, as it can best be determined. Students will read seminal texts on intelligence analysis, discuss the complex cognitive, psychological, organizational, ethical, and legal issues surrounding intelligence analysis now and in the past, and apply analytic methodologies to real-world problems.

This course will provide an overview on project management as it pertains to nonprofit work. The course will teach students how to manage the five aspects of project management: project initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation, and closure. Students will learn the full project cycle from start to finish, drawing on actual examples of projects funded by a diverse range of donors, public and private organizations, and foundations. The course will also utilize templates relevant to project management for students to use as a resource in the field. The class will touch on issues relevant to project management such as project scope, objectives, stakeholders, planning, financial tracking, grants compliance, and closing. Elective course towards the Project Management, Evaluation and Leadership track for the Masters in NGO Management.

This course addresses two important, but overlooked global urban phenomena – the development of world-class urban sustainability plans in Berlin and the Stuttgart region and their suitable transfer and application to cities in the U.S. This class will be designed to expose the student to the evolution and performance of renewable energy, public transit, water infrastructure, workforce training and social inclusion innovations - in these metropolitan regions and the ways that they may (or not) be considered suitable for adoption in the U.S. By the end of this course the student will have developed an appreciation for the pioneering urban sustainability programs of Berlin and Stuttgart and the phenomena of cross-national policy transfer to the U.S.

This course examines the phenomenon of modern warfare through both a theoretical and historical lens. It will provide insight into the definitions, origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of modern conflict. Throughout the course you will analyze recent and ongoing conventional, irregular, and hybrid wars and understand what caused them, how they were conducted, and why they ended the way they did. Through a combination of lecture and online discussion, students will analyze these conflicts from a variety of perspectives to include state security and military forces, insurgents, criminals, and terrorists. Prerequisite: AS.470.692 Military Strategy & National Policy.

Do all countries conduct their intelligence activities in the same way? If not, what are the reasons for the differences? This class will consider theoretical ways of understanding and assessing national intelligence systems. It will look at political, historical, and cultural factors which may influence the development and functions of nations’ intelligence agencies and systems. The class will include an examination of the "ways of intelligence" of the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR/Russia, Germany, China, and Iraq, among others.

What makes some countries grow while others do not? What accounts for successful economic development versus stagnation? As these questions become ever more relevant in an increasingly globalized world, this course offers an introduction to the topic. The class will provide an overview of the main classic and current theories of economic development. It will then go on to explore specific current issues in development, including: development aid, role of international organizations, sustainable development, corruption, institution building and regime type. Specific case studies will be examined including China and India, the East Asian 'tigers', development failures in Africa and mixed outcomes in Latin America.

This course describes the principal challenges facing the making of American Defense Policy and explains previous and current policies declared and practiced to meet them. The course is designed to inform students on the most pressing defense issues confronting the United States, and to present them a framework for defense policy analysis. It emphasizes understanding those defense policies, analyzing them, and considering and weighing alternative approaches to achieving national objectives of deterrence and defense. The course fosters an understanding of the array of U.S. military capabilities providing plausible responses to the use of military power in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. It examines those policies in the areas of nuclear, conventional, and irregular forces, and weighs alternatives in shaping the size and structure of those forces to meet national objectives.

This course introduces students to the R programming language. The R language is one of the most popular tools used today for performing data analytics, statistics, machine learning, data visualization, and much more. By the end of this course, students will understand fundamental programming concepts that apply to all programming languages. These concepts include variables, functions, loops, data structures, and data types. The course will also cover the use of these tools to solve challenging data problems that students may encounter in their academic or professional careers. Note: The course overlaps a small amount with 470.681 Probability and Statistics, but this course focuses much more heavily on the fundamentals of programming. No prerequisite.

This course will introduce students to today’s most pressing public policy issues, with an emphasis on writing to achieve impact. Public policy professionals must be familiar with a variety of key issues and be able to effectively make a case for a position. This course will examine such topic areas as health care, energy/environment, fiscal policy, international trade, and education and identify core issues and the politics that characterize each of these policy areas. As part of our study, students will learn the art of writing policy memos, issue briefs, op-eds and speeches. When you complete the course successfully, you will be able to demonstrate a basic understanding of five public policy issues through various forms of writing. You will be able to effectively and succinctly write policy memos, issue briefs, op-eds, blogs and speeches, addressing a specified audience, clearly identifying the problem, and making a case for a position or solution.

This course will address the practical applications of artificial intelligence particularly in the realms of policy and governance. AI and data science are transformational technologies that hold the promise of improving lives and society at large. While excitement about AI and its applications is growing, its adoption is anything but straightforward. The successful application of AI to lower risk, better understand customers and automate decision making requires a deep knowledge of the right use cases where AI can lead to breakthrough innovations.

This course will provide students with the opportunity to investigate multiple AI use cases and evaluate their merit. In addition, students will select a specific use case, develop reference architecture and determine an appropriate implementation strategy. The course will culminate in the development and delivery of a lab-to-market strategy for their selected use case. No prerequisite.

This course examines the nexus of energy, natural resources, and the environment with conflict, war, terrorism, crime, development, diplomacy, politics, and technology. Students critically examine the ways that increased competition for environmental and energy resources, strained resources, and changing conditions can threaten national security. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

Nationalism and democracy have been two of the most significant forces shaping the contemporary world. The sense of nationality has provided peoples with a strong sense of shared belonging based around the ideas of a common language, land, and heritage. It has sometimes fuelled the demand for collective freedom and democratic self-determination. At the same time it has been a volatile force generating conflicts within and between nations across the globe. In Europe, the effort at forging a common European identity must confront the challenge of resurgent nationalism in traditional countries like Britain, France, and Austria. Meanwhile traditional states like Britain and Spain must themselves confront secessionist nationalism in Scotland, Catalonia, and elsewhere. The modern Middle East has been shaped in part by the conflicting goals of two major nationalist movements - Arab nationalism and Zionism. In Asia, nationalism is emerging as a dominant theme as countries like China and India rise to political and military power. In spite of economic globalization and the development of international laws and institutions, it is pivotal to understand nationalism if we are to understand world politics today.

This course explores the phenomenon of terrorism and its nexus with technology. Beginning with an emphasis on terrorist group factors most likely to influence terrorists' perceptions and attitudes towards extant and emerging technologies, the course subsequently investigates cases of terrorist use, and noteworthy non-use, of various technologies. Students also receive a broad understanding of the evolution of technology with an emphasis on current and imminent technologies of acute security concern, including weapons of mass destruction, cyber, robotics, and nanotechnologies. The course then addresses counterterrorism technologies and potential terrorist response actions for overcoming such security efforts. Students operationalize all of these elements in the final phases of the course when engaging in Red Team exercises designed to demonstrate which types of terrorists are most likely to pursue certain types of technologies, the role of tacit versus explicit knowledge, likelihood of successful adoption, targeting options, and potential counterterrorism measures. Please note that students do not need to possess a technical background or prior knowledge of terrorism to succeed in this course.

This course will introduce computational modeling and demonstrate how it is used in the policy and national security realms. Specifically, the course will focus on agent-based modeling, which is a commonly-used approach to build computer models to better understand proposed policies and political behavior. Agent-based models consist of a number of diverse "agents,'’ which can be individuals, groups, firms, states, etc. These agents behave according to behavioral rules determined by the researcher. The interactions with each other and their environment at the micro-level can produce emergent patterns at the macro-level. These models have been used to understand a diverse range of policy issues including voting behavior, international conflict, segregation, health policy, economic markets, ethnic conflict, and a variety of other policy issues. The course will consist of two parts: First, we will examine the theoretical perspective of computational modeling. Second, you will be introduced to a software platform that is commonly used to develop computational, and, in particular agent-based modeling. No prerequisite

Students gain the foundational knowledge behind WMD (both weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass disruption) and about how these weapons threaten U.S. homeland security. Weapons of mass destruction traditionally include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, while weapons of mass disruption include radiological weapons, such as "dirty bombs." In addition, the course covers the technology behind three WMD delivery vehicles: ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles. In assessing each WMD threat, the course first examines the science and technology for each type of weapon and then applies this theory to real world threats emanating from state and non-state actors. Students apply this knowledge by engaging in red team exercises to identify options for preventing and reducing vulnerabilities from WMD. Please note that students do not have to have prior technical knowledge about WMD issues to succeed in this course.

Since 1945, eight states have tested nuclear weapons, and perhaps two dozen others have started -- and stopped nuclear weapons programs. This course considers why some countries pursue nuclear weapons and why others forgo them, an issue that bedevils both policymakers, who concerned about the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and political scientists, who attempt to explain and predict it. The class will delve into past and present examples, discussing and evaluating theories of why states pursue such weapons, the technologies that make it possible, and the policy tools available to prevent it. We will also draw on the parallel efforts to control chemical weapons, biological weapons, and ballistic missiles.

Since the end of the Cold War the world has seen a scourge of civil conflicts emerging across the globe, such as in Bosnia, Rwanda, Darfur, DRC, South Sudan, and now Syria, global conflicts have put enormous pressure on intergovernmental bodies and governments. Whether too slow to respond, afflicted by political restraints or hindered by bureaucracy, the restrictions on international agencies and governments have often placed NGOs at the fore of response. Partnering with both national governments, military, and international agencies, NGOs have gained recognition for their role in diplomacy, conflict resolution, and peacebuilding. NGOs have gained a prominent role at helping to defuse, mitigate, and prevent conflicts strengthening their influence and recognition. This course will provide an overview on the role that international organizations and civil society (including community based organizations) can have in conflict or post-conflict torn countries. Students will learn how to build strategic partnerships when working with local organizations and NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

"Get me a press release for the candidate ASAP," barks your boss, the campaign manager. You take a swig of your favorite caffeinated beverage and look at your screen; what will you write? This course will provide students the skills and tools they need to succeed in this situation and others. In this class, students will learn the art of political writing and communications where practitioners use speed, brevity and pith to ensure that their points are conveyed and understood. The course will give students a foundation on strategy and message development, focusing in particular on communications tools like press releases, media advisories, speeches, memos and tweets. All of the classwork and assignments will be based on political or public affairs issues. At the end of this writing intensive course, students should have the skills they need to work in communications whether it be on a political campaign, on the Hill or at a public affairs agency. This course can be used towards the Political Communication concentration.

This course examines the role of social science in national security decision making and intelligence. The course lectures, readings and classroom discussion are intended to help students understand the ambivalent relationship between social scientists on the one hand and intelligence personnel and national security policy makers on the other. It also considers the opportunities and limitations in the ways social science could contribute to policy making and how social science has contributed to key national issues. The course will help the student become a savvy consumer of social science.

This course exams the interpretation of constitutional powers and rights under conditions of heightened national security. We will consider the Supreme Court's role in constitutional interpretation, and the balance of power among the three branches. The course will also examine the tension between security and liberty during a time of war. Topics covered during this semester will include military tribunals, unitary theory of the executive, congressional oversight, war-making power, intelligence authorities, and treatment of detainees.

This course provides students with an intellectual foundation for understanding the concepts underpinning homeland security intelligence, as well as an overview of the US national homeland security framework including organization and policies. It examines the underlying intellectual constructs used to frame the comprehension of security issues, intelligence based on those issues and the development of policies and strategies that lead to implementing programs that protect the United States infrastructure and its people from attack. Over the term, students will be challenged to examine the various paradigms that shape homeland security intelligence and critically apply them to contemporary homeland security challenges and examine how well or poorly these paradigms are reflected in current responses, organizations and policies.

This course introduces students to the field of intelligence, particularly as practiced in the United States. After a brief overview of the historical foundations of modern intelligence, it discusses how intelligence is conducted including collection, analysis, counterintelligence, covert action, and oversight. It also discusses intelligence ethics, as well as the disruptive influences of September 11, new technologies, and emerging social trends.

Additional Global Security Studies Electives

This non-technical course introduces the foundational aspects of cybersecurity policy including basic technical principles of networks and their security, principles of strategy and policy, current governance mechanisms for global information infrastructures, and current strategies and policies for cybersecurity for the public and private sectors. It covers current cybersecurity issues, cyber deterrence and conflict, an inventory and description of state and non-state cyber actors, and the nexus between the public and private sectors. The course assumes little to no exposure to technical and policy aspects of cybersecurity.

“Warfare” today is often ambiguous, constant, and non-violent: a combination of low-intensity conflict and struggles over information via cyberspace, especially over “narratives” that sway public opinion. Warfare has always included these elements, but our adversaries today fight and stay in this early stage of cyberspace operations, information operations, and limited or no kinetic conflict, careful never to escalate to state-on-state violence. This course will examine how “non-kinetic” warfare (information operations, cyberspace operations, non-violent resistance) takes place today. Students will learn how the control and manipulation of information shapes national security and creates new political realities. Focus will be on Russian hybrid warfare and “information confrontation,” Chinese weaponization of business and cyberspace and “coercive gradualism,” and terrorist’s use of the internet.

Over the last two decades, the United States and its partners have sought to “securitize” development assistance to solve a range of national security problems, from resolving conflict, countering violent extremism, insurgencies, and great powers, and promoting democracy. This seminar explores to what extent can and should development be used in these ways, what is the impact of doing so on political order, and has this shift away from supporting longer-term economic growth led to new challenges for both governments and international organizations? The course blends theory with practice and offers students an insider view into how U.S. national security policy is made. The first part of the course examines the theory and practice of using development to achieve short-term political and security goals. The second part of the course examines how the United States and other nations have attempted to address conflict and its drivers through civilian-military approaches in a number of countries.

This course examines the role that intelligence plays in the formation of national security policy. The course explores the forces and events that have shaped U.S. intelligence. It examines the steps involved in producing intelligence from requirements through collection, analysis and the actual making of policy. The role of intelligence in the major intelligence issues facing the United States today will be discussed as well.

Additional Electives from other AAP Degrees

From the MS in Geospatial Intelligence Program

  • Introduction to Geospatial Intelligence – 472.600
  • Social Media and Geospatial Information – 472.711

From the MS in Intelligence Analysis Program

  • Intelligence Analysis – 473.602
  • Strategic Culture Analysis – 473.605
  • Legal Issues in Intelligence – 473.606
  • Ethics and Privacy in Intelligence Operations – 473.607
  • Introduction to Intelligence in the Five Eyes Community – 473.609
  • The Rise and Fall of Intelligence – 473.622
  • Counterintelligence and National Security: 21st Century Challenges – 473.640
  • Assessing Foreign Militaries – 473.642
  • Technical Collection of Intelligence – 473.644
  • Defense Intelligence in War and Peace – 473.662

From the MS in Environmental Sciences and Policy Program

  • Hydrology and Water Resources – 420.604
  • Maritime Law and the Environment – 420.605
  • Climate Justice – 420.606
  • Oceanic and Atmospheric Processes – 420.608
  • Sustainability Science: Concepts and Challenges – 420.612
  • Environmental Policymaking and Policy Analysis – 420.614
  • Ocean Stewardship and Sustainability – 420.624
  • Sustainable Cities – 420.644
  • International Environmental Policy – 420.650
  • Climate Change on the Front Lines: The Study of Adaptation in Developing Countries – 420.665
  • Sustainable Food Systems – 420.668
  • Global Scarcity in Freshwater Systems: Crisis and Solutions – 420.676
  • International Water: Issues and Policies – 420.679

From the MS in Energy Policy and Climate Program

  • Science of Climate Change and Its Impact – 425.602
  • Climate Change Policy Analysis – 425.603
  • International Climate Change Policy – 425.637
  • Europe, Eurasia, Middle East, and North Africa Energy Policy – 425.639
  • Global Energy Policy – 425.645
  • Energy and Water Security in South Asia – 425.647

From the Master of Liberal Arts Program

  • The Global Cold War – 450.781

From the MA in Communication Program

  • International Public Relations and Public Diplomacy – 480.661
  • Intercultural Communication – 480.687

Concentrations

  • Strategic Studies – Learn why and how international actors employ hard power with particular emphases on military affairs, intelligence, and terrorism and irregular warfare.
  • Economic Security – Explore the interdependent nature of global economic affairs and actors, from the underworld of transnational organized crime to the high-stakes questions of the United States’ and China’s changing roles in the global economy.
  • Energy and Environmental Security – Study how environmental challenges and energy constraints interact with international politics and conflict.

STATE-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR ONLINE PROGRAMS

Students should be aware of state-specific information for online programs. For more information, please contact an admissions representative.

Audience Menu