Course Descriptions

  • Prerequisite Courses

    410.302 - Bio-Organic Chemistry

    This course provides a foundation in structural organic chemistry, acid base chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, and reaction mechanisms. Subjects include Lewis structures, atomic and hybridized orbitals, stereochemistry, inter- and intramolecular forces of attraction, neucleophilic reaction mechanisms, functional groups, and the organic chemistry of biological molecules. Please note that this course does not count toward requirements for the master's degree in biotechnology. Prerequisite: Two semesters of college chemistry

    410.303 - Foundations in Bioscience

    This course examines the fundamental underlying scientific concepts utilized in the creation and development of biomedical products. Topics to be covered include the structure and function of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, and DNA, as well as the structure and function of cellular components such as membranes, vesicles, organelles, and the cytoskeleton. In addition, students will examine the complexities of metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, signal transduction mechanisms, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and cancer. Please note that this course does not count toward requirements for the master's degree in either biotechnology or bioscience regulatory affairs and is required as a prerequisite course for some students entering the Master of Science in Bioscience Regulatory Affairs.

  • Core Courses

    410.601 - Biochemistry

    This course explores the roles of essential biological molecules focusing on protein chemistry, while covering lipids and carbohydrates. It provides a systematic and methodical application of general and organic chemistry principles. Students examine the structure of proteins, their function, their binding to other molecules and the methodologies for the purification and characterization of proteins. Enzymes and their kinetics and mechanisms are covered in detail. Metabolic pathways are examined from thermodynamic and regulatory perspectives. This course provides the linkage between the inanimate world of chemistry and the living world of biology.

    410.602 - Molecular Biology

    This course provides a comprehensive overview of the key concepts in molecular biology. Topics to be covered include nucleic acid structure and function, DNA replication, transcription, translation, chromosome structure and remodeling and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Extended topics to be covered include methods in recombinant DNA technology, microarrays, and microRNA. Prerequisite: 410.601 Biochemistry

    410.603 - Advanced Cell Biology I

    This course covers cell organization and subcellular structure. Students examine the evolution of the cell, chromosome and plasma membrane structures and behaviors, mechanics of cell division, sites of macromolecular synthesis and processing, transport across cell membranes, cell dynamics, organelle biogenesis, and cell specialization. Students also are introduced to the experimental techniques used in cell biology to study cell growth, manipulation, and evaluation.

    410.604 - Advanced Cell Biology II

    This course is a continuation of 410.603 (Advanced Cell Biology I) and further explores cell organization and subcellular structure. Students examine cell-to-cell signaling that involves hormones and receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messenger molecules, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, cell cycle, programmed cell death, methylation of DNA and modification of chromatic structure, and mechanisms of the cell. The involvement of abnormalities in signal transduction pathways to oncogenesis and other disease states will be stressed. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

  • Enterprise and Regulatory Affairs Courses

    410.607 - Proseminar in Biotechnology

    The Biotechnology Proseminar introduces students to issues and challenges facing leaders of public and private sector organizations, and communities seeking to achieve shared goals within the biotechnology industry. The course brings together diverse academic science and business disciplines (science, regulatory affairs, marketing, finance, legal, ethics, communications, etc). It explores how these disciplines can be used as powerful tools to create effective leadership, and productive collaborations within the industry, while improving managerial decision making. The Proseminar frames and integrates the combined MS/MBA Biotechnology content, methods, and tools of inquiry and analysis.

    410.637 - Bioethics

    Students in this course analyze and discuss traditional philosophical theories regarding the nature of the moral good. They then apply these theories to critical issues and selected cases involving experiments with human subjects, organ transplantation, in-vitro fertilization, the use of animals in research, the collection and publication of research data, peer review, conflicts of interest, and other topics of current concern.

    410.642 - Economic Dynamics of Change in Biotechnology

    Governments around the world are beginning a long term process that reviews and redesigns its healthcare systems addressing concerns of innovation, cost, equitable access, and sustained quality of healthcare. As a result healthcare is undergoing significant changes globally in R&D, marketing, pricing, sales and distribution. This course helps students to understand these processes and the new business opportunities and new business models they will create. It provides some of the basics of macro-and microeconomics to clarify how economic and social forces drive changes in the pharmaceutical, biotech, and genetic industry. Emphasis will be placed on the application of economics.

    410.643 - Managing and Leading Biotechnology Professionals

    The roles of managers and leaders within biotechnology companies undergo constant change. Biotechnology managers and leaders must engage in new and innovative problem-solving strategies; lead a diverse and global workforce; develop partnerships with other businesses, customers, and competitors; manage horizontally and across teams; and utilize technology as a competitive advantage. The student is able to address current challenges in his/her own organization and learn methods of implementing change, such as negotiation techniques and motivation. The course includes in-depth discussions of leadership skills, communication, conflict resolution, and goal integration. Students research a biotechnology organization and analyze what is working and not working within the management systems and suggest alternatives.

    410.644 - Marketing Aspects of Biotechnology

    This course introduces students to the strategic and tactical approaches used in the marketing of biotechnological products and services. Students gain a thorough understanding of the research and planning necessary to develop a marketing plan, the relationship between the marketing and sales functions, the difference between marketing a scientific product and a scientific service, pricing strategies, distribution alternatives, communications, promotion, and the importance of perception. Knowledge of marketing terminology and techniques prove helpful to anyone in the industry.

    410.646 - Creating a Biotechnology Enterprise

    This course provides a foundation to start or help grow a young biotechnology company from inception through early growth. Topics include market assessment of innovative technology, patents and licensing, corporate law, preparing a business plan, raising money from angels and venture capitalists, government grants, strategic alliances, sales and marketing, real estate, human resources, and regulatory affairs. The course provides a survey and overview of the key tasks and challenges typically faced by biotech entrepreneurs, their management team, and directors. Students will prepare a business plan for a biotech start-up and present the plan to a panel of industry experts and financiers. Leaders from our local bioscience community will be guest lecturers for many of the classes.

    410.647 - Research Ethics

    This course covers the basic ethical notions in the conduct of biomedical research with animals and human subjects and that make up the core values of scientific integrity. Students explore issues central to these areas, such as the appropriate use of animals in research, informed consent for human subjects, authorship, peer review, and the ethics of the business of science.

    410.649 - Introduction to Regulatory Affairs

    Regulatory affairs (RA) comprise the rules and regulations governing product development and post-approval marketing. In the U.S., the FDA establishes and oversees the applicable regulations under several statutes, many regulations, and partnership with legislators, patients, and customers. Biotechnology products may be classified as drugs, biologics, or medical devices. Each type is regulated by a different center within the FDA. This course provides an overview of RA, its effect on product development. Topics include: RA history, regulatory agencies, how to access regulatory information, drug submissions, biologics submissions, medical device submissions, GLP, GCP, GMP, and FDA inspections. (Research Adminstration elective. Prerequisites in Biotechnology apply. Contact the director of the MS in Research Admin).

    410.650 - Legal Aspects of Biotechnology

    This course is an overview of the major legal principles that arise to protect and market biotechnological inventions and of the procedures required as a biotech company is established, evolves and brings products to market. The course will cover legal concepts and explore the interrelationship between business and legal challenges. The student is able to analyze business situations and identify potential legal risks. Students that have taken 410.687 Ethical, Legal and Regulatory Aspects of the Biotechnology Enterprise will benefit from this course as they will be conducting an in-depth analysis of contracts and various statutes and court decisions that impact the biotechnology industry.

    410.665 - Bioscience Communication

    Researchers must communicate effectively so their discoveries can be shared with others. In this course, students learn how to communicate their ideas to other researchers, their scientific peers, and investment communities. Students master both written and verbal communication skills; they hone their expertise at making both formal and informal oral presentations; they prepare poster presentations, and develop their own public speaking strategies. The course also presents personal strategies for improving daily communications, cross-cultural communications, and non-verbal skills. Students improve their written communication, editing, and informal writing skills. Participants also learn effective e-mail strategies for getting their message across, and learn how effective writing can improve their chances of getting grant applications approved. Class assignments include preparation of scientific papers, general science writing, oral presentations, PowerPoint presentations, and scientific posters.

    410.675 - International Regulatory Affairs

    The pharmaceutical/biotechnology product approval and marketing requires a good understanding of international regulatory affairs in order to successfully compete in today's global market place. It is important for tomorrow's leaders to understand and follow the regulatory differences to ensure optimum product development strategies, regulatory approvals and designs for exports conforming to the foreign regulatory bodies. There are various product development strategies that industry is using to shorten the product development time by conducting preclinical programs outside the US, however, the strategy requires a careful planning and interaction with the US and foreign regulatory agencies. With the increase in globalization of economy and exports, international regulations will have a bigger impact on the biotechnology business in the future. The course provides a review and analysis of the pharmaceutical/biotechnology product approval processes within the world's major markets. The key strategies required in preclinical product development to marketing approval of the products in Europe, Japan, and the US will be compared and discussed. Students will explore the European Union (EU) regulations and their overall importance on international markets. The course will cover the salient features of common technical and regulatory documents required for submission and approval to the leading regulatory bodies in the world, general guidance documents, International Harmonization, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    410.676 - Food And Drug Law

    The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) governs the regulatory approval process for bringing a drug, biologic, medical device, food, or cosmetic to market. The class will discuss administrative procedures followed by the FDA. The course includes an overview of the drug, biologic and medical device approval processes and the regulation of food and dietary supplements. Students then will be exposed to the enforcement activities of the FDA, including searches, seizure actions, injunctions, criminal prosecutions, and civil penalties authorized under the FD&C Act, as well as other statutes like the Public Health Service Act (which regulates the development and approval of biologics).

    410.677 - Preparing a Successful Submission

    The federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) requires that a drug be the subject of an approved marketing application before it is transported or distributed across state lines. Because a sponsor will likely enter interstate commerce in the preparation or study of the investigational drug, it must seek an exemption from that legal requirement. The Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, is the means by which a sponsor obtains this exemption from the FDA. The New Drug Application, or NDA, is the application which when approved by the FDA, provides the legal basis for marketing a new drug product. Beginning with the IND and moving through the NDA this course provides a comprehensive review and discussion of the IND and NDA and all related submissions required for life cycle maintenance of the applications.

    410.678 - Marketing in a Regulated Environment

    This course is designed to help students, understand, use, and comply with the laws, regulations, and policy guidance documents governing advertising and promotion of products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The course provides an overview of the regulations, discussion of the FDA’s advertising oversight, and FDA enforcement activities. The course content introduces students to advertising approved products. It provides insights on comparing competitor products and the need for head-to-head comparative data, dietary supplements, Rx products, OTC products, unapproved investigational products, and unapproved research products. The course also covers the different regulations from FDA, FTC, and CPSC. Labeling requirements, DoT, OSHA, and other international activities are also covered.

    410.679 - Practicum in Regulatory Science

    This integrative case-based course will focus on applying knowledge gained from previous courses in the MS Bioscience Regulatory Affairs program to actual cases from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. For each case, students will assume the role of regulatory specialist, an FDA reviewer or senior-level policy-maker, or other involved stakeholders, such as a consumer group or an advocacy group. Students will be expected to research, evaluate, and present scientifically and legally justifiable positions on case studies from the perspective of their assigned roles. Students will present their perspectives to the class and be asked to debate the issues with the other students from the perspective of their assigned roles. The major responsibility of the students in this course will be to make scientifically and legally defensible recommendations and to justify them through oral and written communication. Please note this course is only open to students in the MS in Bioscience Regulatory Affairs and should only be taken after all required courses are completed.

    410.680 - Managerial Finance for Biotechnology I

    (Formerly Financial Development for Biotechnology) The management of money is a key ingredient for the success of any enterprise, and even more so for the entrepreneur seeking to achieve both translation of an idea to a product while concurrently making money for the investors. Students will become aware of the challenges business leaders are faced with during each milestone of a company's development. In this course we begin with the basics of money management such that the student will learn the correct vocabulary and understand the important concepts when speaking to potential investors. Students will analyze a term sheet, a contract and a balance sheet. Important topics include understanding the concepts of risk and the time value of money. Students will study real world biotechnology issues, mergers and acquisitions to enhance the value of the course.

    410.681 - Commercializing Biotechnology

    This advanced course provides an integrated and practical approach to considering the principal areas of concern an entity faces when commercializing biotechnology, from creating or obtaining the technology through partnering with others to further develop and commercialize the technology, and finally selling the business or business line that incorporates that technology. The focus of this course is to highlight key junctures in a biotechnology company's evolution; help students identify key financial, management, and business issues at those junctures; and present practical alternatives for students to consider to resolve those issues. This course builds upon 410.650 Legal Aspects of Biotechnology and 410.646 Creating a Biotechnology Enterprise, but they are not prerequisites for the course.

    410.682 - Validation in Biotechnology

    Understanding validation and applying a comprehensive validation philosophy are essential in today's biotechnology industry. First and foremost, validation allows a company to operate in compliance with the regulations and guidance set forth by FDA. Perhaps more importantly, it results in equipment, assays, and processes that are well understood and robust, less prone to failure, and more cost-effective. This course will introduce the fundamentals of validation, validation master planning, resource management, types of validation and the associated documentation, departmental roles and interaction, and the differences between commissioning and validation. Students will have an opportunity to solve real-world problems, generate actual validation documents, and develop validation program elements that balance regulatory requirements, operational needs, and business expectations.

    410.683 - Introduction to cGMP Compliance

    Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations are the minimum standards for the design, production, and distribution of drugs, biologics and medical devices in the U.S. and internationally. In the U.S., they are codified at the federal level, in the FD&C Act and the CFR, and actively enforced by FDA. These regulations, however, only begin to describe the practices used in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Additional sources of insight and guidance include FDA's guidance documents and training manuals, industry trade publications, international compendia, and standards-setting organizations. Students will learn the scope and history of the regulations, industry-standard implementation strategies and "best-practices" approaches, and FDA's current expectations. Students will also learn to apply practical solutions to the regulatory issues faced in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries today.

    410.684 - Technology Transfer & Commercialization

    This course is an introduction to the multidisciplinary aspects involved in the process of bringing technical developments, particularly research emanating from universities and other nonprofit organizations, into commercial use. The course will provide an overview of the key policies, concepts, tools, issues, practices, and trends that are shaping the technology transfer field, with an emphasis on the life sciences sector.

    410.685 - Emerging Issues in Biotechnology

    Biotechnology impacts the world and our social, political, and physical environment in ways many both inside and outside the industry may not fully understand or appreciate. It is critical to ensure that advances in biotechnology be accompanied by important public, political, and social considerations and discussions. This course will cover issues including domestic and global public perception of biotechnology, its benefits and risks, advances in bioagriculture and genetically modified foods, the impact of recombinant therapeutics on the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry, ways in which advances in biotechnology have and will continue to change our views of what life is, and how the political climate impacts advances in biotechnology discoveries. This highly interactive course will include thought-provoking debate and discussion with industry leaders, both proponents and opponents of biotechnology.

    410.687 - Ethical,Legal & Regulatory Aspects of the Biotechnology Enterprise

    This course provides an overview of the important ethical, legal and regulatory issues that are critical to the biotechnology industry. The course shares current trends and essential elements of ethics, legal issues and regulations in a way that allows for an appreciation of how each influences the others. Students will examine core ethical values that guide the practice of science in the biotechnology industry. The course will provide an overview of legal issues such as protecting inventions and intellectual property and licensing, and the range of regulatory oversight mechanisms with which the biotech industry must comply. This course will review the implications of strategic ethical, legal and regulatory choices that add value to the biotechnology firm, customers and society. (Research Adminstration elective. Prerequisites in Biotechnology apply. Contact the director of the MS in Research Admin).

    410.688 - Project Management in Biotechnology

    Today, many organizations use the approach called "Project Management" to handle activities that have a limited life span, as opposed to routine, ongoing operations. This course will answer the question "What do I do to be successful?" The units will provide guidance for project management success by considering each phase in the life of a typical project, from concept to closeout. We will discuss the nature of project management, the structure of projects, working with teams of technical experts, and all the other activities that make project management different from any other discipline. The course will rely heavily on group discussions. Topics will include deciding what to do, developing a project plan, risk management, team leadership, monitoring and controlling during the project, scope change control, and traditional and modern approaches to project closeout. Concepts presented will be consistent with the Project Management Institute's "Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge", the U.S. standard for project management.

    410.689 - Leading Change in Biotechnology

    As bioscience companies grow and mature, leadership needs evolve. Students will learn how to identify their company's position in the "Leadership Life Cycle" and learn how to select the right leadership capabilities based on their current organizational needs. Research shows that the right leaders at the right time dramatically improve organizational success. Discussions will address the leadership needs of organizations from early stage research-based companies through fully integrated bio-pharmaceuticals. General leadership practices and strategies, moving ideas from research bench to the consumer, and strategies to prevent failure will all be discussed.

    410.701 - Introduction to Food Safety

    This course is designed to understand the legal and regulatory complexities of the regulation of food products in the United States. The prone issues including regulatory compliance in food safety and Hazard analysis and Critical Control points (HACCP) are among major issues to control the food supply. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have primary responsibility for safety of meat and food products. Based on the principles of HACCP, FDA issued seafood regulations effective in Dec. 1997. However, the regulation of food additives, labeling, dietary supplements, genetic modifications (GM) and the protection of the food supply will provide the in-depth of food regulation in the United States. The FDA and USDA regulate the safe practice of primary and secondary food products to the American public. Depending upon the source and nature of food product, the method of shipment, advertisement of nutritional values etc. are being governed by FDA and USDA's jurisdictions. The Food safety Modernization Act overhauls the FDA in food surveillance, enforcing regulations on specific targets, inspections records examination, and exemptions. In this course students will learn the existing food regulations and safety net by examining the product tracing, performance standards and preventive control plans towards food safety, security, genetic modifications, dietary supplements, and food labeling etc. Students will have option to design projects to propose effective food safety net that can assist in the supply chain of nation's food safety and security.

    410.702 - Biomedical Software Regulation

    Software continually grows more complex and is becoming relied upon by healthcare professionals in the treatment of patients. This course describes how the U.S. government regulates software used in delivering healthcare including the regulations utilized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). This course covers a wide range of topics, including: FDA regulation of software as a medical device and software validation, medical imaging software regulation, electronic recordkeeping and software used in clinical trials, laboratory information management systems (LIMS), and HIPAA privacy rules and security standards.

    410.703 - Strategic Planning for the Biotechnology Enterprise

    This course is an overview of the strategic planning process os a biotechnology enterprise. It focuses on creating value through strategy formulation and implementation. Topics covered include leadership and technology competencies, performance indicators, intellectual property, corporate governance, regulatory strategy and appropriating value. The thesis of the course is that effective strategic planning and implementation is critical to success, and that is provides a valuable, structured process to create enterprise value and to manage business risks. Best practices in strategic planning and managing the planning process also are provided

    410.704 - Social Entrepreneurship in BioScience

    This course will explore how biotechnology innovators are solving social issues including developing medical diagnostics, discovering effective and safer medicine, producing cleaner energy, remediating environmental contamination and improving crop yields. Students will think broadly in terms of roles required in tackling these social, economic, health and environmental issues and how they can add value to society. This course will cover social entrepreneurship principles and practices in a range of sectors including corporate social responsibility and public value missions in emerging markets. Students will have opportunities to define their role in advancing biotechnology as it relates to the top global challenges

    410.715 - Medical Device Regulation

    This course provides a comprehensive introduction into medical devices and how they are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Topics that will be covered include: (1) an overview of the laws and regulations that govern medical devices; (2) FDA's organizational structure and responsibilities for medical device regulation; and (3) administrative and legal requirements for medical devices throughout the full product life-cycle. Particular focus will be placed on the premarket review, postmarket programs enforcement (e.g., Quality System regulation, and FDA inspectional programs). Included will be discussions on the responsible offices and major program requirements and resources. Students will be given various case studies to examine the application of regulations, as well as, participate in a 510(k)/PMA workshop, mock inspectional audit, and a mock enforcement action. Upon completion of this course, the student will have a working knowledge of the requirements and policies of FDA regulation of medical devices.

    410.727 - Regulatory Strategies in Biopharmaceuticals

    Given the costly drug-development process and the limited resources of emerging biopharmaceutical companies, developing an early regulatory strategy- starting well before clinical trials are initiated, is extremely important for the success of a company. This course will discuss different regulatory strategies that several players of the US biopharmaceutical industry have employed. Students will learn about interacting with regulatory agencies, the orphan drug development, accelerated approval, fast track, priority review, and other regulatory mechanisms, pharmacogenomics and biomarkers, adaptive clinical trials, animal rule, generic drug development and biosimilars. Using case studies, the impact of these regulatory strategies on drug development and how these strategies have helped many biopharmaceutical companies will be discussed. At the end of this course, students will better understand federal regulations and the aspects involved in developing efficient regulatory strategies.

    410.728 - Managing Innovation in the Life Sciences

    Innovation is the creation of value from new ideas, concepts, methods, materials, and organizational structures. Life Sciences organizations that seek to create value for their stakeholders must do so using available capital resources: financial capital, human capital, intellectual capital and physical capital. They should manage those resources to gain leverage and maximize value realized. They then seek to defend and control the value created. Why then, do most organizations treat innovation (and innovators) in ways similar to the body’s immune system (i.e., by identifying the innovators, isolating them, “killing” them, and ejecting them from the organization0? This course will explore innovation, invention, and value creation as a driving force in the biotechnology or life sciences enterprise and the ways in which managers should plan to take full advantage of innovation as the only true competitive weapon for long term success. A special emphasis will be placed on innovation as applied to life science applications (biotechnology, medical devices, health care delivery, drug discovery, development and packaging, bioinformatics, etc.). Topics include invention, ROI, disruption, creative destruction, types of innovation, technology brokering, organizational structures that foster innovation, planning and managing for innovation. Students are required to read extensively, participate actively in discussions, do case studies, and develop a convincing pitch for an innovation project.

    410.729 - Regulatory & Economic Fundamentals of Drug Pricing & Reimbursement

    The US government is now the single largest purchaser of drugs in the world. As the realities of the economic crisis and long term health care reform take root, pricing of pharmaceutical products and the reimbursement regulations that attach to drugs will shape research and development for years to come. As regulatory hurdles continue to climb, the burden of proof will increasingly continue to be on the pharmaceutical industry to prove the value of an individual pharmaceutical product. This course will examine the elements of pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement to better understand accepted drug pricing models, and how both government and industry look at drug pricing and reimbursement. This will include cost-efficiency modeling of the drug development and manufacturing process, therapeutic cost utility and cost benefit analysis, US and international pharmaceutical product registration, accepted methods for valuing pharmaceuticals, macro- and microeconomic analysis and drug development decision modeling as part of a framework for health care economic evaluation, and the political and ethical underpinnings of health care reform as it reflects on the need for government and society to define the fundaments of drug pricing and reimbursement. The goal will be to provide the framework for the pharmaceutical industry professional to better understand the regulatory and economic fundamentals of drug pricing and reimbursement.

    410.732 - Funding a New Venture

    This course is designed to introduce students to the new venture creation, concept pitching and company funding processes from a venture capital perspective. Students will learn how to take a new idea, technology or business model and evaluate its merits for forming a new biotech venture. Students will also engage in projects and real-world experiences to learn how to develop a business plan for presentation to potential investors. The class will also utilize case studies and guest speakers to provide insight into how entrepreneurs successfully pitch their ventures to investors to obtain funding for building new companies.

    410.756 - Grants and Federal Funding for Biotechnology Enterprises

    This course is designed to help students working for life sciences companies understand the fundamentals of obtaining government funding for product/technology research and development. While the emphasis will be on grant funding from the National Institutes of Health, other Federal and state funding mechanisms will also be covered. Students will learn how to search for funding opportunities and receive an overview of the NIH funding mechanisms as well as background and history of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, The course will provide insights on preparing an SBIR proposal and submission procedure. Fundamentals of government contracting law will also be covered.

    410.799 - Current Topics in Regulatory Policy

    The ability to successfully navigate the intersections of law, regulation, guidance, and policy has never been more critical to the success of entities engaged in the medical product development and commercial marketing. The entities that make-up this industry are very sophisticated in their abilities to innovate at a blazing speed. In contrast, regulators must use a regulatory model that evolves and adapts much slower than their industry counterparts. As a result, regulators are relying more heavily on policy to drive their strategy, actions, and outcomes. Therefore, a clear understanding of regulatory policy is an essential consideration for individuals engaged in the medical product development industry. This course provides an introduction into several key areas of government regulatory policy (both old and new) and regulatory science. The topics covered in this course will serve as a road map for students who want to successfully navigate within this complex and changing regulatory model.

    410.802 - Independent Studies in Regulatory Science

    Students in the bioscience regulatory affairs program have the opportunity to enroll in an independent study course. This elective course is an option after a student has completed at least five graduate-level courses and has compiled a strong academic record. Prior to proposing a project, interested students must have identified a study topic and a mentor who is familiar with their prospective inquiry and who is willing to provide guidance and oversee the project. The study project must be independent of current work-related responsibilities as determined by the project mentor. The mentor may be a faculty member teaching in the bioscience regulatory affairs program, a supervisor from the student's place of work, or any expert with appropriate credentials. The goal of the study project should be a "publishable" article. Students are required to submit a formal proposal for review and approval by the bioscience regulatory affairs program committee. The proposal must be received by the Advanced Academic Programs office no later than one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the student wants to enroll in the course. Students must meet with a member of the program committee periodically for discussion of the project's progress, and a written document must be completed and approved by the program committee and project mentor for the student to receive graduate credit. Additional guidelines can be obtained from the AAP administrative office. This course is open only to students in the MS in Bioscience Regulatory Affairs program or the MS in Biotechnology with a concentration in Regulatory Affairs and may be taken only after 5 courses have been completed.

    410.803 - Regulatory Science Thesis

    Students wishing to complete a thesis may do so by embarking on a two semester thesis project, which includes 410.802 Independent Studies in Regulatory Science Project and 410.803 Biotechnology Thesis courses. This project must be either a hypothesis-based or research question-based original research study. The student must complete 410.802 Independent Research Project and fulfill the requirements of that course, including submission of project proposal, final paper and poster presentation, before enrolling in the subsequent thesis course. For the thesis course, students are required to submit a revised proposal (an update of the 410.802 proposal) for review and approval by the faculty advisor and biotechnology program committee one month prior to the beginning of the term. Students must meet the faculty advisor periodically for discussion of the project's progress. Graduation with a thesis is subject to approval by the thesis committee and program committee, and requires the student to present their project to a faculty committee both orally and in writing. Prerequisites: All required Regulatory Science courses and three elective courses, which must include 410.802 Independent Studies in Regulatory Science and if hypothesis driven, 410.645 Biostatistics.

    410.804 - Practicum in Biotechnology Enterprise & Entrepreneurship

    This course synthesizes the knowledge and skills acquired in the Masters in Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship program, while offering a real world examination of a bioscience organization and the issues it faces. Students will form interdisciplinary teams and work with faculty and industry professionals on an authentic and current project from a local bioscience public or private company, an entrepreneurial start-up, or a nonprofit organization. This course is only open to students completing he Masters in Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship program.

    410.805 - Practicum in Project Management

    This course synthesizes the knowledge and skills acquired in the Certificate in Biotechnology Enterprise Project Management Focus. It offers students a real world examination of a bioscience organization as it develops and implements project management solutions and addresses related problems and issues. Students will work with faculty and industrial professionals on an authentic and current project from a local bioscience public or private company, an entrepreneurial start-up, or a nonprofit organization. This course is only open to students completing the Certificate in Biotechnology Enterprise, Project Management Focus.

    410.806 - Independent Studies in Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship

    Independent Studies in Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship provides students an opportunity to apply knowledge gained from previous courses in a real world situation. Prior to proposing a project, interested students must have identified a study topic, and a mentor (or work with the program committee to identify a project and a mentor) who is familiar with their prospective inquiry and who is willing to provide guidance and oversee the project. The study project must be independent of current work-related responsibilities as determined by the project mentor. The project can be at your work but must be outside your normal course of duties. The mentor may be a faculty member teaching in the enterprise program, a supervisor from the student's place of work, or any expert with appropriate credentials. Students are required to submit a formal proposal for review and approval by the enterprise and entrepreneurship program committee. The proposal must be received by the Advanced Academic Programs office no later than one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the student wants to enroll in the course. Students must meet with a member of the program committee periodically for discussion of the project's progress, and a written document must be completed and approved by the program committee and project mentor for the student to receive graduate credit. Additional guidelines can be obtained from the AAP administrative office. The student will work with the instructor on a proposal that does not duplicate other course work. The student will work independently on a project such as forming a new business venture or commercializing a product. A written business plan and oral presentation are required. Please note that this course is only open to students in the MBEE and should only be taken after all required courses are completed

  • Health Science Intensive Courses

    410.705 - Communication for Health Care Professionals

    In this course, students will practice both oral and written communication techniques and learn how to effectively communicate in formal and informal arenas. Students will work together to improve daily communications with peers, colleagues and potential patients. Coursework will focus on specific oral competencies including interviewing and being interviewed and cross-culture communications as well as specific written competencies including application essays, email communications and interview summaries. In all communications, emphasis will be given to getting their message across through logical and concise writing techniques. Additionally, students will discuss how communication strategies can be used to encourage or hinder changes in patient behavior and incite changes in public health.

    410.706 - Building and Leading Teams in Health Care

    In order to provide the best care possible, health care professionals are working together more now than ever before. As a result, strong leadership and teamwork skills are becoming a necessity in joining the health care field. This course will provide hands-on activities to help students develop problem solving skills, learn basic negotiation and mediation strategies, and understand their own tendencies as a leader and team member. Using real world examples, students will explore how strong leadership and teamwork can drive innovative solutions to public health issues.

    410.707 - The Psychosocial Determinants of Health, Implications on Diagnostics

    In this capstone course, students will learn basic diagnostic techniques and use case studies to explore the relationship between physiological illnesses and diagnostic output. Through discussions and guided interviews, students will explore the role of psychology and sociology in patient care choices as well as physician recommendations to patients. Students will practice cultural sensitivity through group activities and discussion of pressing public health issues. Students will undertake final group projects that identify needs in the local community and attempt to create solutions they could feasibly be completed with limited resources.

  • Laboratory Elective Courses

    410.652 - Cell Culture Techniques

    This laboratory course illustrates the use of basic cell culture techniques for bioscience research and commercial applications. Students are introduced to cell cultivation methods, including proper use of a biological safety cabinet, sterile technique, cell enumeration and media preparation, primary cultures, cultivation of cell lines, detection of contamination, cryopreservation, transfection, and an introduction to bioassays. This course is designed for students with no prior knowledge or with limited knowledge of cell culture methods. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.656 - Recombinant DNA Laboratory

    This laboratory course introduces students to methods for manipulating and analyzing nucleic acids. Students gain extensive hands-on experience with plasmid purification, restriction mapping, ligations, bacterial transformations, gel electrophoresis, as well as applications of the polymerase chain reaction. This course is not recommended for students with substantial experience in these methodologies. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.657 - Recombinant Protein Expression, Production and Analysis

    This laboratory course introduces students to the construction, production, processing, and analysis of recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources. Concepts include the design, construction, and delivery of recombinant expression clones, expression of recombinant genes in host cells, protein purification, and protein analysis. Laboratory exercises use current techniques and approaches for the cloning, expression, production, purification, and analysis of recombinant proteins in bacteria and mammalian cells. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.656 Recombinant DNA Laboratory; or consent of program committee

    410.658 - Biodefense & Infectious Disease Laboratory Methods

    This laboratory course introduces students to the methods and techniques used for biothreat detection, surveillance and identification. Using bio-simulants and demonstrations, various biodetection platforms will be discussed and presented, such as point-of-detection devices and methods, laboratory based screening and identification technologies (culture, RT-PCR, ECL, immunoassays, biosensors), and high-throughput environmental surveillance methods. Statistical methods for determining diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and assay validity will be discussed. Laboratory practices and procedures for working in simulated Biosafety Level 2 and 3 environments will be practiced. Students will be introduced to the current bioinformatics genomic and proteomic databases used for select agent (category A, B and C) identification and characterization. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; undergraduate Microbiology or 410.615 Microbiology or approval of program committee

    410.659 - Advanced Recombinant DNA Lab

    This course is a continuation of Recombinant DNA Laboratory (410.656), intended for those who have completed the introductory course, or who have extensive molecular biology laboratory experience. This second course consists of a series of integrated laboratory exercises designed to give students hands-on experience with a variety of advanced recombinant DNA techniques. Exercises include molecular cloning; PCR optimization; site directed mutagenesis; mutation detection; measuring gene expression by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR); and control of gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Students will be introduced to high throughput/high content screening procedures such as robotic liquid handling, microarray analysis, and utilization of bioinformatic techniques. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.656 Recombinant DNA Laboratory; or consent of program committee

    410.660 - Immunological Techniques in Biotechnology

    This laboratory course introduces students to methods for analyzing the immune system. Participants gain experience with various immunologic techniques used in research and biotechnology laboratories such as immunoassays, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, SDS-PAGE, antibody purification (protein A), and cytokine assays. Additional topics for discussion include hybridoma technology, phage antibody libraries, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and flow cytometry. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; 410.613 Principles of Immunology or undergraduate immunology course highly recommended; or consent of program committee

    410.731 - Bioprocessing and Scale-up Laboratory

    This course will provide students with hands-on experience in process development of biological product from a cell bank through purification. Students will develop two products; one produced in bacteria and the other in a mammalian cell culture system. Students will optimize growth conditions on a small scale and then produce the biologic in a bioreactor. Students will then purify the product after optimizing purification conditions. Topics to be covered include microbial fermentation, cell culture production, bioassays, product purification and the regulatory, engineering and business principles associated with scale-up of a biologic product. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.603 Cell Biology 1

    410.752 - High Throughput Screening & Automation Lab

    This course will utilize hands-on instruction in automated bioassay systems for high throughput screening (HTS) as an entry point to covering pertinent aspects of HTS, such as data manipulation, storage, and analysis; liquid handling robotics; microtiter plate washing, manipulation and bar coding; HTS assay detectors; and automated devices for assay setup, validation and visualization. Cost considerations, HTS amenable assay systems, and miniaturization and scale-up will also be discussed. Prerequisites: All four core courses and 410.696 Bioassay Development

  • Science Elective Courses

    410.606 - Clinical Trial Management

    The goal of this course is to provide students with a functional understanding of all the operational aspects of a clinical study. At the end of the course, students will be able to think about a study from the point of view of the Study Manager (primary focus of the course), and also from that of different team members, understand how regulations affect and guide a study, and be exposed to common issues and mistakes made during clinical trial management. Students will learn what happens at the site level and how and why sites are monitored, emphasizing potential site issues and what a study manager and team could do to resolve/prevent problems. An example study protocol will be used throughout the study and students will be required to write and review clinical site monitoring reports. Prerequisites: 410.648 Clinical Trial Design

    410.610 - Gene Organization & Expression

    Students use genetic analysis and molecular biology techniques to investigate chromosome organization, chromatin structure, functional genomics, and mechanisms of differential gene expression. Other topics include DNA methylation, silencers, enhancers, genomic imprinting, and microarray analysis. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.611 - Vaccinology

    This course will cover the biological development, immunologic concepts, and methods for vaccine delivery. Specific topics include new technologies for vaccine development such as DNA vaccines, recombinant mucosal vaccines, dendritic cells for antigen delivery, novel adjuvants, and methods to increase vaccine stability. Delivery systems for vaccines, both time tested and new methodologies such as lipid-based systems, needle-free injection systems, and novel methods such as the use of genetically modified foods, will be discussed. The underlying biological role of the innate and adaptive immune systems will be explored in light of new types of vaccines and delivery systems. Finally the process of bringing vaccines to market will be covered including government oversight and licensure. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; 410.613 Principles of Immunology, or undergraduate immunology course.

    410.612 - Human Molecular Genetics

    In this course students learn to use the tools of modern genomics to elucidate phenotypic variation within populations. The course uses human disease (from simple Mendelian disorders to common complex disorders) to exemplify the types of studies and tools that can be used to characterize cellular pathophysiology as well as to provide genetic diagnostics and therapies. Students become facile with linkage analysis, cancer genetics, microarray analysis (oligo and DNA arrays), gene therapy, SNP studies, imprinting, disequilibrium mapping, and ethical dilemmas associated with the Human Genome Project. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.613 - Principles of Immunology

    This course covers molecular and cellular immunology, including antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, complement, major histocompatibility complexes, B- and T-cell receptors, antibody formation and immunity, cytotoxic responses, and regulation of the immune response. Students are also introduced to the applied aspects of immunology, which include immunoassay design and flow cytometry. Special topics include immunomodulation, immunosuppression, immunotherapy, autoimmunity, and vaccination. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.614 - Pathogenic Bacteriology

    Lecture and discussion augmented by guided readings on pathogenic bacteria, with special attention to microorganisms that cause human disease. The course is designed to impart to the student an appreciation as well as knowledge of the history, epidemiology, cultivation, morphology, serology, biochemistry, and clinical description of the major disease-producing bacteria. Discussion of therapeutic considerations and vaccination will also be included in this course. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; undergraduate microbiology course or permission of program committee

    410.615 - Microbiology

    This course is an overview of microorganisms important in clinical diseases and biotechnology. Students are introduced to the general concepts concerning the morphology, genetics, and reproduction of these microbial agents. Lectures focus on individual organisms with emphasis on infectious diseases, biotechnology applications, molecular and biochemical characteristics, and molecular and serological identification methods. Students will also discuss the impact biotechnology, and particularly genomics, will have on the development of antibiotics and vaccines as treatment and preventive measures. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.616 - Virology

    This course covers the advanced study of viruses with regard to the basic, biochemical, molecular, epidemiological, clinical, and biotechnological aspects of animal viruses primarily and bacteriophage, plant viruses, viroids, prions, and unconventional agents secondarily. Specific areas of virology, including viral structure and assembly, viral replication, viral recombination and evolution, virus-host interactions, viral transformation, gene therapy, antiviral drugs, and vaccines, are presented. The major animal virus families are discussed individually with respect to classification, genomic structure, virion structure, virus cycle, pathogenesis, clinical features, epidemiology, immunity, and control. The viral vectors and their applications in biotechnology are discussed. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.617 - Marine Biotechnology

    This course covers the application of molecular techniques to study the marine environment and obtain useful products from marine systems. Students examine recent progress in discovery of drugs and enzymes from marine microbes and macroorganisms, biodiversity, bioremediation, molecular approaches in aquaculture, the role of marine microbes in global carbon cycling, and genomics of marine organisms. Prerequisites: 401.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.618 - Parasitology

    The field of parasitology is immense. It covers a plethora of organisms and a multitude of disciplines. This course focuses on the parasites of medical importance that cause human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It also introduces the student to the general aspects of parasitology. The developmental biology, natural history, and cell and molecular biology of the major eukaryotic parasites will be discussed. Also, the fundamental mechanisms of host-parasite relationships, diagnosis, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and control strategies will be emphasized. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I.

    410.619 - Molecular Evolution & Phylogenetics

    This course covers the principles of molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Topics include patterns and analyses of DNA polymorphism, genetic evolutionary trees, molecular clocks, the evolution of multigene families, gene duplication and shuffling, transposition and horizontal gene transfer, gene number and genome size, organellar and nuclear genetic markers, genetic mutation and selection, genes in populations, viral evolution, human evolution, and the theoretical background for molecular phylogenetics. Examples of each concept will be drawn from the scientific literature in epidemiology and human or animal genetics. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.620 - Advanced Topics in Immunology

    This course is literature based and requires a foundation in immunology. Students will be presented with current topics in Immunology through literature reviews and basic science papers from the premier journals. Topic areas may include but are not limited to: Toll-like receptors, NK cells and their receptors, microRNAs in immunology, cytokine signaling, epigenetics, T regulatory cells, tumor immunology and cancer immunotherapies, T cell subsets (memory T cells, Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, TFH), dendritic cells, negative and positive costimulation, viral immunity including AIDS, mouse models in immunology, Fc receptors, B cell subtypes and antibodies, and allergy and asthma. Students will be required to present a paper of choice during class in one of these major topics areas. Students will be also introduced to methods predominately used in science papers such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, gene arrays, ELISAs, western blots, immunohistochemistry, in vivo mouse models, and microRNA arrays. Students enrolling in this course are not required to already have experience in critical reading and evaluation of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.603 Advanced Cellular Biology I, and 410.613 Principles of Immunology or an undergraduate immunology course.

    410.621 - Agricultural Biotechnology

    In this course, students are introduced to the application of recombinant DNA technology to agriculture. Studied are methods for the introduction of foreign DNA into plant and animal cells and generation of stably transformed plants and animals. Students consider specific examples of the use of transgenic plants and animals in biotechnology, which can provide protection against insects, diseases, and tolerance to specific herbicides. They also investigate how recombinant growth hormones can result in leaner meat, greater milk yield, better feed utilization, and how transgenic plants and animals can serve as bioreactors for the production of medicinals or protein pharmaceuticals. Because recombinant agricultural products are released into the environment or consumed as foods, students also need to become familiar with environmental safety issues. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.622 - Molecular Basis of Pharmacology

    This course begins by reviewing receptor binding and enzyme kinetics. Various cellular receptors and their physiology are discussed as well as the pharmacological agents used to define and affect the receptor's function. Students study the pharmacology of cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors. Also considered are the drugs that affect enzymes. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.623 - Molecular & Cellular Physiology

    Students in this course gain an understanding of how coordinated regulation of bodily function occurs at the molecular and cellular levels of organization. The focus is on neurons, muscles, and hormones. Specific areas covered for excitable tissue include bioelectric properties of excitable membranes, Hodgkin-Huxley ion currents, voltage-gated ion channels and their structures, synaptic transmission, excitation-contraction coupling, and contractile properties of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. The biotechnological connection is the pharmacological interventions to modulate functioning of excitable tissues. For endocrine physiology, there is an overview of hypothalamic, pituitary, reproductive, and other hormones. The class uses leptin and obesity as a model hormone and pathology, respectively, and examines in detail its action as a putative fat busting hormone. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.624 - System and Integrative Physiology

    This course is the second half of the Physiology sequence and involves the study of organ systems and how they are regulated by the central nervous and endocrine systems. Students will learn the structure and function of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, renal, and reproductive systems, as well as their pathophysiology during disease processes. We will also study metabolic physiology in the context of exercise and diet. The biotechnological connection will be how the drug interventions modulate functioning of many of these systems. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; 410.623 Molecular and Cellular Physiology is recommended but not required

    410.625 - Industrial Microbiology

    This course covers the principles of various processes associated with the production and recovery of different bioproducts derived from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Topics include the classification of microorganisms, media development, instrumentation, fermentation principles, mammalian and insect cell propagation, product recovery, protein purification, and the principles of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP). Emphasis is on large-scale production methods and production of recombinant proteins for diagnostic and clinical applications. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.626 - Molecular Development

    This course covers the molecular and cellular bases of development in a variety of experimental organisms with special emphasis on mammalian and human models. From the formation of germ cells, fertilization, and early embryonic development to the final formation of organs and tissues, developmental processes are considered in the context of biotechnological applications. Application possibilities include creation of transgenic animals and drug design to combat specific types of cancer. The molecular mechanisms of developmental processes and the identification of targets for therapeutic purposes are central themes. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.627 - Translational Biotechnology:From Intellectual Property to Licensing

    This course provides an extensive overview of a process for development of a pharmaceutical by a biotechnology company or pharmaceutical company. The course emphasizes the importance of intellectual property, the basic sciences underpinning the development of a product, and the importance of the interaction between a company and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Students learn to appreciate the importance of quality control and assurance, good manufacturing practices, preclinical and clinical testing, and the lengthy regulatory processes which govern the development, manufacture, and eventual sale of biotechnological products. Hands-on solving of practical problems and guest lecturers who are experts in the field familiarize students with the intricacies of the process. Prerequisites: 410.303 Bioscience for Regulatory Affairs, OR 410.601 Biochemistry and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology or admission to the MS in Regulatory Sciene OR Masters of Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Programs.

    410.628 - Neurobiology

    This course provides a framework for understanding the molecular physiology of neuronal structure, signaling, and circuitry and how this cellular design is ultimately integrated to achieve higher cognitive functions such as perception, control of movement, learning, and memory. The course introduces the students to various current neuroscience topics, including but not limited to membrane physiology and electrical excitability of neurons, neurotransmitters and synaptic transmission, signaling at the neuromuscular junction, cellular and higher-order aspects of perception and motor control, molecular mechanisms of neural development, and the molecular basis of learning and memory. This course places particular emphasis on the genetic and molecular bases of a wide variety of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.629 - Genes & Disease

    Because of recent advances, powerful diagnostic tests now detect genetic diseases, and there is promise of gene replacement therapy. In this course students cover general genetic principles, DNA tools for genetic analysis, cytogenetics, gene mapping, the molecular basis of genetic diseases, animal models, immunogenetics, genetics of development, genetics of cancer, and treatment of genetic diseases. Molecular methods of analysis are emphasized. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.630 - Gene Therapy

    Students are introduced to gene transfer, its technical evolution, and its testing through clinical studies. Gene therapy holds promise for both genetic diseases and acquired diseases such as cancer and AIDS. The health, safety, and ethical issues surrounding gene therapy are discussed, together with the review and oversight systems established to regulate this therapy. Students also consider how industry is developing these techniques, both in new start-up companies as well as in established biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. An overview of proprietary and patent issues in gene therapy is part of the course. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.631 - Infectious Diseases

    This course focuses on infectious diseases of mankind, presented in a system-by-system format. Basic principles of host defense and microbial virulence will be discussed. Practical up-to-date information on the clinical presentation, symptoms, physical findings, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the general array of diseases caused by bacteria and viruses will be presented. The use of antibiotics, prophylactic agents, and vaccines along with selected aspects of pathogenesis and epidemiology will be covered. More cursory coverage will be given to the fungal and parasitic agents of human disease. The student will develop a broad understanding of the many different kinds of infectious processes to which our bodies are subjected to on an ongoing basis. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.632 - Emerging Infectious Diseases

    This course focuses on emerging infectious diseases from many different perspectives. The maladies addressed range from diseases that have reappeared in altered genetic forms, such as the influenza virus and the West Nile virus, to the lethal hemorrhagic fever caused by the Ebola virus. Also discussed is the threat of recombinant and ancient infectious agents such as Bacillus anthracis, causative agent of anthrax, which can be used in biological warfare weapons. Opinions from noted scientists and leaders concerning emerging diseases and the prospects for battling them successfully provide scientific and social perspective. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.633 - Introduction to Bioinformatics

    Retrieval and analysis of electronic information are essential in today's research environment. This course explores the theory and practice of biological database searching and analysis. In particular, students are introduced to integrated systems where a variety of data sources are connected through World Wide Web access. Information retrieval and interpretation are discussed, and many practical examples in a computer laboratory setting enable students to improve their data mining skills. Methods included in the course are searching the biomedical literature, sequence homology searching and multiple alignment, protein sequence motif analysis, and several genome analytical methods. Classes are held in a computer laboratory. Acquaintance with computers is required. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.634 - Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics

    This course introduces students with a background in the life sciences to the basic computing concepts of the UNIX operating system, relational databases, structured programming, object-oriented programming, and the Internet. Included is an introduction to SQL and the Perl scripting language. The course emphasizes relevance to molecular biology and bioinformatics. It is intended for students with no computer programming background but with a solid knowledge of molecular biology. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.635 - Bioinformatics:Tools for Genome Analysis

    Several large-scale DNA sequencing efforts have resulted in megabase amounts of DNA sequences being deposited in public databases. As such, the sequences are of less use than those sequences that are fully annotated. Assigning annotations such as exon boundaries, repeat regions, and other biologically relevant information accurately in the feature tables of these sequences requires a significant amount of human intervention. This course instructs students on computer analytical methods for gene identification, promoter analysis, and introductory gene expression analysis using software methods. Additionally, students are introduced to comparative genomics and proteomic analysis methods. Students will become proficient in annotating large genomic DNA sequences. Students complete two large sequence analysis projects during the course. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics; or all Bioinformatics core courses

    410.636 - Biology Of HIV & AIDS

    This course includes an overview of the biology and life cycle of the immunodeficiency virus, including the simian viruses (SIVs). Specific areas of HIV immunopathogenesis are emphasized, to include HIV diagnosis, HIV-induced immune dysfunction, and therapeutic breakthroughs in the treatment of HIV-1 disease. Students become familiarized with current methods in biotechnology that have advanced our understanding of the biology of retroviruses. Special topics include international genetic variation (subtypes and clades), HIV vaccine development, and global economic impact. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.638 - Cancer Biology

    This course provides students with knowledge of the fundamental principles of the molecular and cellular biology of cancer cells. Lectures and demonstrations explain the role of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, angiogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms in tumor formation. Discussion of aspects of cancer epidemiology, prevention, and principles of drug action in cancer management is part of the course. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.639 - Protein Bioinformatics

    Because the gap between the number of protein sequences and the number of protein crystal structures continues to expand, protein structural predictions are increasingly important. This course provides a working knowledge of various computer-based tools available for predicting the structure and function of proteins. Topics include protein database searching, protein physicochemical properties, secondary structure prediction, and statistical verification. Also covered are graphic visualization of the different types of three-dimensional folds and predicting 3-D structures by homology. Computer laboratories complement material presented in lectures. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics

    410.640 - Molecular Phylogenetic Techniques

    This course will provide a practical, hands-on introduction to the study of phylogenetics and comparative genomics. Theoretical background on molecular evolution will be provided only as needed to inform the comparative analysis of genomic data. The emphasis of the course will be placed squarely on the understanding and use of a variety of computational tools designed to extract meaningful biological information from molecular sequences. Lectures will provide information on the conceptual essence of the algorithms that underlie various sequence analysis tools and the rationale behind their use. Only programs that are freely available, as either downloadable executables or as Web servers, will be used in this course. Students will be encouraged to use the programs and approaches introduced in the course to address questions relevant to their own work. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics

    410.641 - Clinical & Molecular Diagnostics

    This course covers basic concepts and practical applications of modern laboratory diagnostic techniques. Topics include the principles of testing methodology, quality assurance, and the application of molecular methods to the clinical and research laboratory. The test methods to be covered include nucleic acid-based methods such as hybridization, amplification, and sequencing; non-nucleic acid methods such as HPLC, GLC, and protein analysis; and technologies such as PFGE, ribotyping, RFLP, and serological testing methodologies. In addition to the test procedures, students are exposed to aspects of statistics, quality control, regulatory issues, and applications of these methods to the diagnosis and prognosis of human disease. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.645 - Biostatistics

    This course introduces statistical concepts and analytical methods as applied to data encountered in biotechnology and biomedical sciences. It emphasizes the basic concepts of experimental design, quantitative analysis of data, and statistical inferences. Topics include probability theory and distributions; population parameters and their sample estimates; descriptive statistics for central tendency and dispersion; hypothesis testing and confidence intervals for means, variances, and proportions; the chi-square statistic; categorical data analysis; linear correlation and regression model; analysis of variance; and nonparametric methods. The course provides students a foundation to evaluate information critically to support research objectives and product claims and a better understanding of statistical design of experimental trials for biological products/devices. Prerequisites: Basic mathematics (algebra); scientific calculator

    410.648 - Clinical Trial Design and Conduct

    Through a case study approach, this course will cover the basic design issues of clinical trials, specifically targeting the Protocol, Case Report Forms, Analysis Plan, and Informed Consent. The design of a specific trial will be studied to illustrate the major issues in the design of a study, such as endpoint definition, control group selection, and eligibility criteria. The course will also cover the analysis plan for a study, including approaches that are central to clinical trials such as stratified analysis, adjustment factors, and “intention-to-treat” analysis. The planned analytical techniques will include the analysis of correlated data (i.e., clustered data, longitudinal data), survival analysis using the proportional hazards (Cox) regression model, and linear models. A semester-long project will include the creation of a Protocol, Case Report Forms, and Informed Consent. Prerequisites: 410.645 Biostatistics or equivalent (Required); 410.651 Clinical Development of Drugs and Biologics (Recommended)

    410.651 - Clinical Development of Drugs and Biologics

    This course introduces students to the planning and work required to develop potential new drugs and biologics efficiently. Students gain a thorough appreciation of FDA and ICH regulations and guidelines. Because the course emphasizes the importance of planning before the execution of any of the necessary steps, lectures use a "backwards" approach, discussing the final analysis and report before developing protocols. Topics also include an overview of preclinical investigations; NDA/BLA format and content; clinical development plans; product and assay development; the IND; and trial design, implementation, and management. Prerequisites: 410.303 Bioscience for Regulatory Affairs, OR 410.601 Biochemistry and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology or admission to the MS in Regulatory Science OR Masters of Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship programs.

    410.653 - Tissue Engineering

    Tissue engineering is a highly multidisciplinary field that involves cell biology, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and medicine. This course will be a survey that introduces students to the field from scientific, clinical, manufacturing, and regulatory perspectives. Roughly the first half of the course will be devoted to background material, and the second half will focus on applications. Readings will be drawn from books and journals. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.655 - Radiation Biology

    This course will review types of ionizing radiation and their differences, physical and chemical interactions of radiation with key biological molecules, effects on living matter beginning with molecular and cellular interactions and proceeding to tissue, organ, and organism levels, emphasizing the human system. Radiation's beneficial effects in cancer therapy and medicine as well as detrimental and carcinogenic effects will be discussed. Specific units will consider food irradiation, nuclear power plant accidents, radiation terrorism, everyday sources of exposure to the US population, and other practical situations involving radiation. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology

    410.661 - Methods in Proteomics

    This course covers the analytical methods used to separate and characterize pharmaceutical compounds (predominantly proteins) derived through biotechnology. While emphasis is placed on the general principles and applicability of the methods, current protocols are discussed, and problem sets representing realistic developmental challenges are assigned. Topics include chromatography (HPLC, SEC, IEC), electrophoretic techniques (2-D gel electrophoresis), spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, fluorescence, CD), analytical ultracentrifugation, microarrays, mass spectroscopy, amino acid analysis, sequencing, and methods to measure protein-protein interactions. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology

    410.662 - Epidemiology: Diseases in Populations

    Epidemiology is the study of the patterns and determinants of disease in populations. It constitutes a basic science for public health and biomedical sciences and its influence can be felt daily through the presentation of data by government, academic, and industry sources. The goal of this course is to present an introduction to epidemiological methods and inferences to biotechnology professionals with little prior experience in public health. Issues in epidemiological inference and the assessment of causal relationships from epidemiological studies will be discussed, introducing the issues of bias and confounding. Throughout the course, emphasis will be on the practical use of epidemiology and lectures will be complemented by case studies and published literature. Examples will be drawn from contemporaneous issues in chronic and infectious diseases. At the conclusion of the course, students should have a greater appreciation for the role of the epidemiologic method and be able to evaluate a basic epidemiologic study, including how the study goals and research questions relate to the design, measures, and inferences. Recommended Prerequisites: Undergraduate statistics course or 410.645 Biostatistics.

    410.663 - Current Topics in Molecular & Cellular Biology

    This course is a literature-driven exploration of current topics and methodologies employed in cell biology research. By closely examining both fundamental and innovative experimental approaches, as well as cutting-edge technologies, we will explore a broad range of cell biology topics, many of which most students have previously encountered, at least at some level, in the core courses. The particular subjects and technologies discussed may vary widely from semester to semester; topics may include but are not limited to expression profiling (microarray analysis),"knock-down" with RNAi, the use of transgenic and knock-out mice, proteomics and mass spectrometry, microscopy applications (epifluorescence, confocal, and/or EM), characterizing protein/protein interactions, and detection methods for the movement of small molecules and ions. Students enrolling in this course are expected to already have some experience in critical reading and evaluation of the primary scientific literature. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.666 - Next Generation DNA Sequencing and Analysis

    The recent revolution in DNA sequencing technologies has transformed biology within a few short years, dropping the cost and ease of sequencing dramatically to the point where the “$1,000 Human Genome” is in sight. Armed with complete genome sequences, biologists need to identify the genes encoded within and the variation in these genes between individuals, assign functions to the genes, and to put these into functional and metabolic pathways. This course will provide an overview of next generation sequencing technologies in the historical context of DNA sequencing, the pros and cons of each technology, and the bioinformatics techniques used with this sequence information, beginning with quality control assessment, genome assembly and annotation. Prerequisites: 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics; 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics

    410.667 - Theory/Appl Immunoassays

    Antibodies are useful as molecular tools in a variety of applications in biotechnology. They can be produced quickly, inexpensively, and in very large quantities. Students will examine how antibodies can be configured as a measurement tool called an immunoassay. Students design immunoassays for their own laboratory applications such as radio- and enzyme-immunoassays, and competitive and immunometric immunoassays. They learn how to modify antibodies chemically for conjugation of reporter molecules; and they become aware that various immunoassay performance issues can affect results. Students also investigate immunoassay formats such as configuration of antibodies as biosensors and surface plasmon resonance signaling. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I. Prior completion of 410.613 Principles of Immunology is strongly recommended or approval of program committee.

    410.669 - Immunology of Infectious Diseases

    Immunology of Infectious Diseases is a lecture-based, advanced topics course designed for students who have a background in immunology and medical microbiology. The course provides a detailed description of specific pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal) and their interactions with the human immune system, including innate and acquired immunity. Pathogens covered in detail may include: mycobacterium (tuberculosis), gram-negative enteric bacteria (bacillary dysentery), paramyxovirus (measles virus), enterovirus (poliovirus), plasmodium parasites (malaria), intestinal protozoa (amoebiasis), trichinella, and candidiasis (thrush) and other opportunistic mycoses. Immunology topics covered in detail include: mucosal immune responses, the role of PRR and PAMPs; pathogen regulation of host immune response; pathogen evasion of immune effector mechanisms; polarization of CD4+ T helper cell subsets, mechanisms of immunopathogenesis, and vaccine design. Lectures will be supplemented with talks from scientific experts from the field. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.670 - Biology of Stress

    This course explores stress from a multidisciplinary perspective beginning with a history of stress research, which began in the early 20th century. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the subject matter, a detailed consideration of anatomy and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems will be discussed. In addition, students will examine how stress affects the endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, and immune systems. Students will also learn the role of stress in cognition and complex behaviors such as memory, mood, appetite, sleep, and sexual desire. Animal and human studies will be discussed as well as current pharmacological treatments. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry ; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I.

    410.671 - Microarrays & Analysis

    This course will focus on the analysis and visualization of microarray data. The general aim is to introduce students to the various techniques and issues involved with analyzing multivariate expression data. Additionally, students will visualize the results in modern statistical scripting software. Topics include detecting and attributing sources of data variability, determining differentially expressed genes with relevant statistical tests, and controlling for false positive discovery (multiple test corrections, permutations, etc.). An introduction to linear and non-linear dimension reduction methods (PCA, PLS, isometric feature mapping, etc.) and an introduction to common pattern recognition (clustering), classification, and discrimination techniques will be included. Assignments and concepts will make use of publicly available Affymetrix and cDNA microarray data sets. Examples will mostly be demonstrated in S-plus and R (publicly available) code, with some in SAS. Free demo software tools such as Minitab, Spotfire, TreeView, Expression Profiler, and web UIs will also be utilized. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.645 Biostatistics; 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics or an undergraduate computer programming course

    410.673 - Biological Processes in Regulatory Affairs

    This course provides an overview of the biological processes and laboratory techniques utilized for the discovery, development and evaluation of therapeutic drugs. Students investigate drug development processes such as gene cloning, culture scale-up, downstream processing, and product purification. Emphasis is placed on the theory and application of laboratory methods used in drug development, such as recombinant DNA techniques, antibody technology, protein purification, immunoassays, high-throughput drug screening, chromatography, electrophoresis, cell receptor characterization, pharmacokinetics, drug toxicity testing and evaluation of therapeutic drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. Prerequisites: 410.303 Bioscience for Regulatory Affairs, OR 410.601 Biochemistry and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology or admissions to the MS in Regulatory Science OR Masters of Biotechnology Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Programs.

    410.692 - Biological & Chemical Threat Response & Forensics

    This course introduces the methods and techniques used for biological and chemical threat agent characterization; methods of detection, identification, medical intervention, and forensic attribution are also discussed. Lectures cover a broad variety of topics pertaining to the use of biological and chemical agents including: historical background of biological and chemical agents in classic and discretionary warfare; the introduction of scientific evidence in criminal proceedings and chain of custody for evidentiary materials in crimes and terrorism; quality assurance in laboratory operations; threat containment; decontamination and remediation; health and safety of responders and analysts; and risk assessments. Laboratory methods employed in the characterization and forensic analysis of biological (bacterial, viral, biological toxins, agricultural threats), and chemical agents (classic military chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals and materials) will also be discussed. General overviews of techniques and sample collection for classic biological and chemical agents (PCR, DNA sequencing methods, immunological analyses); and for chemical agents (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; undergraduate Microbiology or 410.615 Microbiology.

    410.693 - Science, Medicine & Policy in Biodefense

    This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the Concentration in Biodefense. Biological warfare is introduced in its historical context, followed by the properties of the most important biological threat agents, their medical consequences and treatment, diagnostics and forensics. Relevant international and domestic policy issues are explored, along with defense strategies and the nature of existing dangers to national security. Students should leave the class with a deep understanding of biological warfare and terror agents, the consequences of their potential use, and the available means of protection. Prerequisites : 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; undergraduate Microbiology or 410.615 Microbiology.

    410.695 - Applied Molecular Biology

    This course covers both basic and applied concepts in molecular biology. It is designed for students with a good working knowledge of molecular biology who want to study more advanced concepts and how they may be applied in biotechnology. Topics for discussion include DNA/RNA structure, DNA replication, transcription, translation, posttranslational modifications, restriction enzymes, general recombinant DNA techniques (DNA ligations, bacterial transformation, DNA/RNA isolation), DNA sequencing, plasmids, and polymerase chain reaction. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I.

    410.696 - Bioassay Development

    This course will cover methodological approaches to bioassay development for high throughput screening. Both cell-based (cytotoxicity; cytoprotection, high content imaging, and reporter systems) and cell-free assay systems (enzyme, FRET, time resolved fluorescence, quenching assays, and immunological assays) will be included with discussion of the potential promise and pitfalls associated with each assay system. Various assay formats, visualization techniques, and current developments in assay technology will be discussed. Project management techniques will be utilized to aid in the process of assay development. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology and 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.697 - Microfluidics and Biosensors

    Microfluidics (Lab-on-a-chip technology) is the miniaturization of laboratory operations for micro-scale chemistry, high-throughput drug screening, environmental sensors, biothreat detectors, forensics, clinical diagnostics and proteomics. This course will cover microfluidic implementations of bioassay development such as sample dilution, cell lysis, chromatography, solid-phase extraction, electrophoresis, nucleic acid amplification and sequencing, analyte detection, single-cell analysis, microarray design and mass spectrometry sample preparation. The materials, design, fabrication, and testing of microfluidic chips and biosensors will be discussed, with emphasis on the applications of this technology to detect microbial pathogens and cancer markers. In addition, the course will include case studies from the literature to introduce students to intellectual property issues related to microfluidic technology. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology or approval of program committee.

    410.698 - Bioperl

    This course builds on the Perl concepts taught in 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics. Perl has emerged as the language of choice for the manipulation of bioinformatics data. Bioperl, a set of object-oriented modules that implements common bioinformatics tasks, has been developed to aid biologists in sequence analysis. The course will include an overview of the principal features of Bioperl and give students extensive opportunity to use Perl and the tools of Bioperl to solve problems in molecular biology sequence analysis. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics

    410.699 - Nanobiotechnology

    The emerging field of nanobiotechnology utilizes developments in nanotechnology and molecular biology for applications to biomedical science and clinical practice, as well as fundamental cell biology research and industrial biotechnology. Nanobiotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that exploits the unique functional properties of natural and synthetic biomolecular-sized (nanometer-scale) constructs such as quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, nanostructured surfaces, liposomes, artificial membranes, and molecular machines for biotechnology and medicine. This course is designed for biotechnology majors and will survey the research, development, and applications of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutics (including drug delivery and anticancer treatments); cell biology and single-cell analysis, nanofluidics, bioassays, biosensors, and bio-inspired engineering. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I; 410.604 Advanced Cell Biology II

    410.712 - Advanced Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics

    This intermediate-to-advanced-level course, intended as a follow-on to 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics (a prerequisite for this new class), will integrate and expand on the concepts from that introductory class to allow students to create working, Web-based bioinformatics applications in a project-based course format. After a review of the concepts covered in 410.634, students will learn how to create functional Web applications on a UNIX system, using Perl and CGI to create forms that can be acted upon, and using the Perl DBI module to interface with MySQL relational databases that they will create and populate to retrieve and present information. This will be demonstrated by building an in-class, instructor led project. More advanced SQL concepts and database modeling will also be covered, as well as introductions to HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript. Class time in the latter weeks of the class will be devoted to individual assistance on student projects as well as to short lectures on advanced topics. Once again, whenever possible, this course will emphasize relevance to solving problems in molecular biology and bioinformatics. Pre-requisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts

    410.713 - Advanced Genomics and Genetics Analyses

    The next generation of array and sequencing technologies provides the ability to investigate large quantities of genomics information with higher sensitivity, greater throughput, and lower costs. This also introduces new challenges in data management, novel algorithmic approaches, and general interpretation. This course builds on the topics in 410.671 Microarrays and Analysis to address analysis of both genetic variation and genomics content using technologies measuring splice variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation (CNV), and transcription factor binding sites. Analysis methods for deep sequencing technologies are also introduced including: quantitative mRNA content (RNA-Seq) and whole genome assembly methods with de novo and reference-based approaches. Prereqisites: Molecular Biology, Introduction to Bioinformatics, Microarrays

    410.733 - Comparative Animal Physiology

    This class examines animal physiology from an evolutionary and comparative viewpoint. The goal is to examine the commonalities, as well as unique differences, in how various animal organisms address the necessary life functions. Topics will include homeostatic mechanisms as an overarching theme, integrating the following systems: nervous, endocrine, muscle, circulatory, defense, respiratory, excretory, fluid and acid-base balance, digestive, energy balance and thermal, reproductive.

    410.734 - Practical Introduction to Metagenomics

    The emerging field of metagenomics allows for the study of entire communities of microorganisms at once, with far-reaching applications in a wide array of fields such as medicine, agriculture and bioremediation. Students will learn the principles of metagenomics through exploration of published project data and guided readings of recent literature. Using data from the Human Microbiome Project, students will explore practical analysis tasks including sequence assembly, gene prediction and annotation, metabolic reconstruction, taxonomic community profiling and more. Pre-requisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.634 Practical Computer Concepts for Bioinformatics

    410.736 - Genomic and Personalized Medicine

    This integrative course will be of interest to a wide variety of students in different concentration areas. Applying knowledge from their core courses and introductory bioinformatics, students will examine the current applications of whole genome sequencing and genome wide association studies in clinical medicine, and explore evolving applications and their impact on future medical diagnoses and treatments. Students will review both established and emerging sequencing platforms in detail. This course will closely examine whole genome sequencing applications in inherited and heritable diseases and cancer, amongst others. Class discussions will include ethical, legal, regulatory, and economic implications of genomic medicine. Students and faculty will regularly report on new developments in the field as they emerge throughout the course. Prerequisites: 410.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics

    410.750 - Molecular Targets & Cancer

    This course will investigate potential molecular targets in cancer including receptor tyrosine kinases, G-Protein coupled receptors, the TGF beta signaling pathway, cell cycle check points, kinases and phosphatases, chemokine and chemokine receptors, nuclear receptors, suppressor proteins, metastasis and angiogenesis targets, integrins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Discussion will also include topics on what defines a molecular target and the methods by which they are evaluated. Prerequisites: All four core courses

    410.751 - Chemical Libraries & Diversity

    Chemical diversity and "pharmacological space" will be studied with an emphasis on disciplines related to drug discovery. Medicinal chemistry, natural product chemistry, focused synthetic libraries, and combinatorial chemistry will be covered. Lipinski's rules for drug-like molecules will be discussed in detail, as well as methods for chemical analysis, in silico drug design, molecular modeling, and compound storage and handling. In addition, techniques used for assessing and harnessing chemical diversity for drug discovery will be discussed. Prerequisites: All four core courses or approval of program committee

    410.753 - Stem Cell Biology

    This course will involve discussion and debate on current topics concerning stem cell biology and the use of stem cells in biotechnology and therapeutics. Topics will include review and discussion of developmental and cell biology, stem cell characteristics, stem cell preparation and therapeutic uses, tissue engineering, global regulatory and ethical issues, and commercialization of stem cell therapy. Current peer-reviewed literature and guest experts in the field will provide up to date information for discussion. Prerequisites: All four core courses.

    410.754 - Comparative Microbial Genomics:From Sequence to Significance

    Hundreds of bacterial and archaeal genomes have been completely sequenced and thousands more will follow in near future. In this course we will learn how to make sense of this vast sea of information in order to understand the diversity of microbial life on earth: transforming DNA data into knowledge about the metabolism, biological niche and lifestyle of these organisms. The use and development of bioinformatic platforms for the sensible comparison of genetic function and context are essential for work in modern microbiology. Topics covered will include methods for sequencing, gene finding, functional prediction, metabolic pathway and biological system reconstruction, phylogenomics, ontologies, and high-throughtput functional genomics. Particular attention will be paid to publically available bioinformatics resources and their proper use. Examples will be drawn from microbes of importance to human health, industry, ecology, agriculture and biodefense. Lectures and discussions are integrated with computer exercises where appropriate. Prerequisites: 401.601 Biochemistry; 410.602 Molecular Biology; 410.633 Introduction to Bioinformatics

    410.777 - BioFuels

    In this course, students are introduced to the current technologies used in the production of biofuels. These technologies include ethanol distillation using a variety of biomass raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, cellulosic waste materials, and beer waste. Students will also study the methods used to produce biodiesel using agricultural products, such as soybeans and canola, used vegetable oil, and algae. They will also investigate the production of hydrogen from algae and bacterial sources. Students will also study the biodigester and how it can be used to transform waste into energy. In addition to studying the techniques used to produce biofuels, students will also discuss the economic and environmental impacts of using agricultural biomass sources, since many of these are also food sources. Pre-requisites: 410.601 Biochemistry, 410.602 Molecular Biology, 410.603 Advanced Cell Biology I

    410.800 - Independent Research in Biotechnology

    Students in the biotechnology program have the opportunity to enroll in an independent research course. This elective course is an option after a student has completed at least eight graduate-level courses and has compiled a strong academic record. Prior to proposing a project, interested students must have identified a research topic and a mentor who is familiar with their prospective inquiry and who is willing to provide guidance and oversee the project. The research project must be independent of current work-related responsibilities as determined by the project mentor. The mentor may be a faculty member teaching in the biotechnology program, a supervisor from the student's place of work, or any expert with appropriate credentials. Students are required to submit a formal proposal for review and approval by the biotechnology program committee. The proposal must be received by the Advanced Academic Programs office no later than one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the student wants to enroll in the course. Students must meet with a member of the program committee periodically for discussion of the project's progress, and a written document must be completed and approved by the program committee and project mentor for the student to receive graduate credit. Additional guidelines can be obtained from the AAP administrative office. Prerequisites : All four core courses and four elective courses.

    410.801 - Biotechnology Thesis

    Students wishing to complete a thesis may do so by embarking on a two semester thesis project, which includes 410.800 Independent Research Project and 410.801 Biotechnology Thesis courses. This project must be a hypothesis-based original research study. The student must complete 410.800 Independent Research Project and fulfill the requirements of that course, including submission of project proposal, final paper and poster presentation, before enrolling in the subsequent thesis course. For the thesis course, students are required to submit a revised proposal (an update of the 410.800 proposal) for review and approval by the faculty advisor and biotechnology program committee one month prior to the beginning of the term. Students must meet the faculty advisor periodically for discussion of the project's progress. Graduation with a thesis is subject to approval by the thesis committee and program committee, and requires the student to present their project to a faculty committee both orally and in writing. Prerequisites: All four core science courses and six elective courses, which must include 410.800 Independent Research Project and 410.645 Biostatistics.