Course Descriptions

This list of course descriptions includes those for most Governmental Studies courses offered by all of the programs of the Center for Advanced Governmental Studies:

  • Global Security Studies;
  • Government;
  • Government Analytics;
  • Intelligence;
  • Nonprofit Management; and
  • Public Management.

Course descriptions for courses offered by the Center’s  Science, Technology and International Security program are listed separately here.

Other programs in AAP offer courses that can count as electives toward the MA in Global Security Studies (GSS). These include:

GSS students may enroll in courses in any of the programs listed above. GSS students pursuing a concentration in Energy and Environmental will frequently take courses offered by the EPC and ESP programs. Please note that in some cases courses outside the GSS program have pre-requisites or assume certain knowledge or skills. Accordingly, please read course descriptions carefully. If in doubt, contact the instructor or the relevant program director. Similarly, if you are unsure if a course counts toward a particular concentration, please contact your adviser.

Not all courses are offered every semester. Please refer to the GSS program’s Multi-Year Schedule to plan a course of study for upcoming semesters. The schedule is subject to change but should be quite helpful.

  • Courses

    470.011 - Graduate Writing Workshop

    This intensive writing course offers students a foundation in essay composition and provides an in-depth review of sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation. Designed for those students who need to improve their writing skills, the curriculum in Graduate Writing Techniques examines the various techniques writers use to compose their sentences, to establish syntactic relationships within paragraphs, to draft thesis and transitional sentences, and to relate syntactic structure to ideas.

    470.020 - Directed Research

    Required for those who have completed all of their course work, including the Research and Thesis class, but are still working on their thesis. Details of this offering will be posted soon.

    470.302 - Introduction to Graduate Work in Government

    This course is an introduction to graduate work and will not count toward your degree, but is designed to help students maximize their performance and excel in graduate studies. The course will combine class work with one-on-one advising and tutoring. The course will cover such topics as research, writing, citation, argument, using evidence, study habits, and managing a graduate-level workload. Teacher and student will meet at the beginning of the semester to assess areas of greatest need and tailor the course to meet them.

    470.601 - Climate Change and National Security

    This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

    470.603 - Introduction to Global Security Studies

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of global security studies, including theories of international relations, perception and misperception, theories of foreign policy, the varying concepts of security, and the elements of national power. It also includes a brief introduction to social movement theory. It applies these conceptual tools to selected security issues such as terrorism, climate change, and the causes of war.

    470.605 - Global Political Economy

    o 470.605 Global Political Economy (3 credits) In the wake of the financial crisis, bank bailouts, and stimulus plans, the relationship between American economic power and national security is especially salient. In this course, students investigate core topics in international political economy, analyzing the security implications of each. Topics include trade relations, international finance, monetary relations, poverty, and development. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies. Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.606 - U.S. Security in a Disordered World

    This course provides an overview of the manifold challenges and opportunities for United States security in the current disordered and changing world. It aims to help students assess why events occur and what policies are developed in response. In that endeavor, the course has three major objectives. First, the course will review the major perspectives on, and debates about, U.S. security and the institutions through which policy is made and executed. Second, the course will review some U.S. security issues through scholarly, policy, political, and historical lenses. Third, the course will help students write for both policy and academic audiences. This course is not open to students who have had 470.606 American National Security.

    470.607 - Counterintelligence and National Security: 21st Century Challenges

    Counterintelligence information regarding and operations against foreign intelligence services has always been central to the intelligence process. In many places and at various times, it has been clearly the most significant part of that process. For reasons that will be discussed during the semester, this has not been true in American intelligence for the last half century or so. This class will examine the doctrine and processes of counterintelligence through the 20th century, with the second half of the class pivoting to address the challenges posed by a volatile information and communications environment, a geopolitical environment in which non-states operate as both potential threats and potential partners, and in which insider threats may be as great as those emanating from foreign actors. Finally, the course will address the challenges of operating effective counterintelligence operations in a manner that respects democratic processes and values.

    470.608 - Public Policy Evaluation & the Policy Process

    This course is designed to introduce students to the public policymaking process, to the basics of policy analysis, and to the substance of some of today’s major policy debates. The first half of the course focuses on establishing a framework in which to analyze public policy formulation within the United States. The class also reviews the tools for developing and implementing policy. The second half of the course turns to policy analysis of some critical contemporary issues. Building on earlier readings, we will study current debates in economic/tax policy, education, health care, social security, and national security. (Core requirement for the MA in Public Management. Elective option for Government. Analytics students)

    470.609 - Leadership Skills in the 21st Century

    This course will assist leaders in identifying their personal approach to leadership; provide tips on motivating staff by building trusting relationships and shoring up their credibility; suggest influence and persuasion strategies that leaders need to employ when working with bosses, colleagues, direct reports, and critical stakeholders, including funding agencies; develop strategies to build effective work teams; and consider approaches to monitor organizational performance in an ongoing fashion.

    470.610 - American Political Thought

    This course focuses on the development of these principles of equality and liberty, beginning with the founding period and ending with the "rebirth of freedom" at the close of the Civil War. In other words, we will examine the many crises along the way toward the realization of America's principles, from the early debates over federalism and slavery, to the crisis of nullification, to the Civil War. Other themes will also be examined, including the development of American character and democratic culture. We will study these themes through an examination of primary source materials.

    470.611 - Introduction to Terrorism Studies

    This course provide an overview of the principal areas important to the study of terrorism. The course offers a variety of academic, policy, and operational models, theories, approaches, and concepts regarding the definitions of terrorism, the nature and functioning of various terrorist groups across the globe, and a variety of domestic and international governmental operational and policy responses. Through this exploration, students will be able to identify patterns of behavior of both terrorist groups and governmental responses, and will also be able to identify gaps, and principal areas of improvements in how we understand, and respond to this important security challenge.

    470.612 - Bureaucratic Politics

    This seminar will examine the political support for bureaucracy, how bureaucracy functions in contemporary government and society, and selected current controversies over the purpose and reach of bureaucracy. How does bureaucracy enhance or frustrate liberal democratic ideals? We will take up case studies involving current political issues, such as civil rights enforcement, the war on terror, the role of regulatory agencies, judicial policymaking, relevant student experiences, and the instructor's own experience in various federal and state agencies.

    470.613 - Managing Risk and Performance: Improving Decisionmaking in Government Agencies

    The United States has experienced the most significant failure of its financial system since the Great Depression. Differences in governance and management between the survivors and the others are instructive not only for financial firms, but for government agencies and private companies in other sectors of the economy. This course seeks to present learnings that are potentially relevant to government managers and organizations. The basic lesson, of course, is that low probability events with devastating consequences do happen. Nicolas Nassim Taleb (2007) calls such events “black swans.” He argues that they take place much more frequently than people expect. Managers must take the possibility of black swans into account even when times are good; that’s one factor that distinguishes the survivors from the rest. The federal government and private sector have learned this from Katrina, the massive 2010 Gulf oil spill, homeland security events such as September 11, and the Great Recession that emerged from the financial crisis. All of these occurred within a single decade. Students will be expected to produce a research paper on an approved topic relating to (1) a crosscutting theme of governance and risk management at one or more private companies, (2) government regulation and supervision of risk management at one or more private companies, or (3) a cross-cutting theme of governance and risk management at government agencies. Students will be encouraged to make the course an interactive one and to share their personal knowledge of successes and failures of governance and risk management. The syllabus can be accessed from the Governmental Studies course descriptions webpage.

    470.614 - Government and Social Media

    The marble chambers of Congress are now full-time reelection centers. The ranks of the press corps in Washington have been decimated since the 1980s, and lawmakers are gladly filling the void by becoming the first-person story tellers of Capitol Hill. Everyone bemoans witnessing what is arguably the most hyper-partisan Congress in the nation’s history, but few understand the technological underpinnings of the devolution of what was once hailed as the world’s greatest deliberative body. While the Constitution was crafted explicitly to provide space for great minds to debate, the constraints built into the current system leave lawmakers no distance from interest groups, wealthy donors, and angry voters who often receive only a portion of the story from their increasingly partisan sources of news, including the lawmakers themselves. But new media hasn’t just impacted Congress. The White House and Executive Branch agencies have latched on to new forms of media to reach broader audiences. The Supreme Court seems to be the last holdout when it comes to accessibility and transparency, but they have their reasons. This course will explore the history of how politicians and the government interact with the public, while examining the rapid evolution of government and political communications in recent years. It will also examine proposals to make the government more transparent, technologically advanced and less focused on speed. This course counts towards the Concentration in Political Communications

    470.615 - Speechwriting: Theory and Practice

    The theory and practice of speechwriting are the focus of our study of the great political speeches of all time and especially those of the American political tradition. We will examine the content, structure, and purpose of high rhetoric ranging from Pericles to Solzhenitsyn, from Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, and Franklin D. Roosevelt to contemporary politicians. Based on their knowledge of the best models, students will draft and deliver their own speeches.

    470.616 - Political Ideas, Strategy, and Policy Implementation

    It is easy, in this age of reactive 24-hour news, to believe that ideas no longer matter in politics. But ideas are the currency of politics, and are central to both campaigning and governing. What candidates stand for matters, and the best policy is the best politics. This class will discuss the critical role ideas play in our American political system. It will examine how ideas define candidates and governments, shape political strategies, and form campaign communications. But, most importantly, it will discuss how campaigning on ideas leads to successful governing. While compromise and negotiation are often derided as weaknesses in today’s political system, we will examine how these techniques have been used to implement policy ideas and further political strategy. From the practical perspective of the instructor’s own legislative and political experience, the class will take up case studies involving the interplay between politics and ideas in recent history in areas such as budget reform, national security, tax reform, crime prevention, trade, and poverty. Through these case studies, we will look at how and why policy ideas succeeded or failed through the lens of elections, political communications, and their positive impact on the public.

    470.617 - The Courts and Public Policy

    Americans traditionally have viewed the courts as—in the words of a constitutional scholar—"the least dangerous branch of government." They are seen as reflectors, not agents, of change. But in an age of government downsizing, the role of the courts bears renewed examination. Students explore the historical and philosophical roots for the notion that American courts, and whether the lawyers who appear before them, can and should make law and policy, and the alternatives to this function. Students consider prominent areas of public policy that have been shaped by the courts, such as civil rights, family and domestic law, environmental and safety regulation, and the regulation of business and commerce. This course counts towards the Legal Studies Concentration.

    470.618 - Contemporary Congressional Policymaking

    This course deals with the origins of legislation and how bills are processed through subcommittee, committee, and floor activities. Students are introduced to the many variables that influence the progress of a given bill. Students discuss House and Senate leadership and the ways in which congressional leaders contribute to overall policy outcomes.

    470.619 - State Politics and Policymaking

    This course provides an introduction to the form and function of state governments around the United States and the issues they are currently facing. During the semester, the course explores the interplay between the U.S. Congress and State Legislatures, the ways in which policies enacted by state government impact our daily lives, and the intricacies of the political process at the state level. Special emphasis will be placed on key issues currently being debated in many state capitals pertaining to gay marriage, gambling, health care, higher education, transportation infrastructure and the environment. A visit to the Maryland General Assembly for a visit with the Governor and legislative leaders might be arranged.

    470.620 - Introduction to Intelligence in the Five Eyes Community

    This course provides students with an overview of intelligence structures within the Five Eyes community (US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand). It covers both foreign and domestic agencies, be they civilian, military or police; HUMINT or SIGINT- enabled; security-intelligence or foreign-intelligence oriented; and tactically or strategically-focused. The course will compare how the various Five Eyes security or intelligence services set priorities and objectives, define national interests (versus shared requirements), develop tactical intelligence, create actionable insights, and how they craft timely and relevant assessments for both domestic and foreign partners. Students are expected to be able to draw conclusions on the value of different types of intelligence, from tactical operations intended to mitigate threat to life cases, to strategic insights relating to proliferation or espionage cases. Upon completing the course, students will understand the dynamics that exist amongst operators and analysts, as well as partners within and outside of the alliance, between domestic intelligence clients and foreign agencies, in regards to sensitive national interests and those of the international partnership.

    470.621 - Implementing Democracy: Public Action, Policy Tools, and Outcomes

    ((Formerly Public Policy and Participatory Government)This course will focus on the connection between democracy and public action and its impact on policymaking. The drive for more openness and transparency in government continues and is part of a set of relatively new policy tools primarily used as alternatives to regulation. Evaluating the choice and effectiveness of these policy instruments and others, such as disclosure, will allow students to identify and examine the criteria of ”good governance.” The role of the public in the policymaking process and the new kinds of participation possible in the technological age are examined as well. Case studies of policy areas, such as health care, food safety, and environmental protection, help to assess what more public involvement means for the policy process.

    470.622 - Money and Politics

    This course considers the historical and contemporary relationship between money and government. In what ways do moneyed interests have distinctive influences on American politics? Does this threaten the vibrancy of our representative democracy? Are recent controversies over campaign finance reform and lobbying reform signs that American government is in trouble? This course is reading, writing, and discussion intensive, and we consider the large academic literature on this subject, as well as the reflections of journalists and political practitioners. Election law and regulations on money in politics are always changing, and so part of the course is designed to give students tools at tracking these developments. The overall goal of the course is to foster an understanding of the money/politics relationship in ways that facilitate the evaluation of American democracy.

    470.623 - Nonprofit Program Development and Evaluation

    (Formerly Program Development & Evaluation in Nonprofits.) A major goal of this course is to help students become more proficient in recognizing, evaluating, and encouraging the kinds of benefits or outcomes intended by our society’s variety of nonprofit and public programs. We will examine what needs and opportunities are addressed by four major types of programs: those serving individuals, those serving communities, those serving networks or systems, and those serving other organizations. Evaluating each requires different lenses and different tools; we will explore the role of culture and context in choosing particular approaches to evaluation. A view of programs as interconnected rather than isolated will be encouraged. A second goal is to help students become more proficient in managing an evaluation process: We will explore purposes and uses of evaluation, the essential elements of an evaluation inquiry, and ways to communicate and use evaluation results. We will explore the variety of quantitative and qualitative strategies useful for evaluating progress in an organization’s attainment of its intended outcomes or benefits. Students can expect to become more proficient in discussing issues of nonprofit and public “program effectiveness,” and strategies for improving nonprofit and public program designs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.624 - Health Care Analytics and Policy

    This course covers the ways in which analytics are being used in the healthcare industry. Topics include data collection opportunities created by the ACA and other laws, the use of analytics to prevent fraud, the use of predictive modeling based on medical records, the insurance industry's increasing use of data and the ethical issues raised by these practices. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis.

    470.625 - Resource Development and Marketing in Nonprofits

    The goal of this course is to prepare future nonprofit leaders and board members with the international resource development and marketing fundamentals that help every nonprofit thrive. The course focuses on how to create and nurture an organizational culture where everyone on the staff and board understands, embraces, and acts on his or her role in developing strategic relationships with funders, potential funders, and media professionals. You will gain an understanding of the process, the metrics that drive the process, and the milestone markers that lead to success. You will explore how to develop a board and/or cadre of volunteers who give generously, share expertise freely, connect you to the right government officials and media leaders, and invite others to join them. Data-driven decision-making and all aspects of fund development, marketing, and communications will be woven throughout the course. Led by an internationally recognized practitioner, consultant, and master teacher, the course will use scenarios, discussion, social media, audio, and video clips so that you will walk away with the knowledge you need to secure private and government funding and social capital as a CEO, senior staff member, board chair, or member, and the confidence to do it all well. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.626 - Understanding The Media: Old and New

    No one who works inside the beltway, whether in government or the private sector, can escape the impact of the mass media. This course helps students understand the role and practices of the news media. It teaches critical skills in analyzing and interpreting the news and in assessing its impact on government and public policy. Students explore media ethics and First Amendment issues and hear from several guest lecturers who share their expertise.

    470.627 - Financial Management & Analysis in the Public Sector

    The primary emphasis of this class will be to teach students how to make more informed business decisions through the use of financial management accounting information. Management accounting is concerned with the information provided managers to plan, manage control, and assess an entity’s activities and performance. Managerial accounting concepts are universal and can be applied to service, government, and nonprofit organizations. This class assumes no formal exposure to management accounting (or financial accounting, for that matter) and as such will focus on how to organize and use information to run/measure/operate a public entity or program. (Core course for the MA in Public Management. This course counts toward the Economic Security concentration. Elective option for Government Analytics students)

    470.628 - Parties, Campaigns, and Elections

    Situating recent elections in broader historical context, this course examines the structures, activities, and functions of American political parties and their roles in campaign and electoral processes. What strategies do parties employ and how are individual campaigns organized? What roles do ideology, interest, and party organization play in connecting political elites and mobilizing voters? How do political parties function in an electoral context increasingly dominated by candidate-centered campaigns, mass media politics, professional consultants, and independent voters?

    470.629 - The Politics of Health Care Policy

    This course introduces students to the political actors and influences that determine the nature of health care policy. Particular emphasis is placed upon the implementation of Obamacare and the possible reforms and/replacements offered by Republicans and the new Administration.

    470.630 - Congress and the Making of Foreign Policy

    This class will examine the role of Congress in the making of American foreign policy. In particular, this class will discuss the role of Congress in war powers, economic sanctions, human rights advocacy, the approval of international agreements including treaties, international affairs budgets and spending, investigations and oversight of the conduct of foreign policy by the executive branch as well as the impact of Congress on the general direction of American foreign policies and priorities. Special attention will be given to the role of Congress in U.S. policy toward Iran over the past few decades, the use of military force in Iraq and Syria, the role of the legislative branch in U.S policy toward China and Taiwan and the promotion of human rights as a component of American foreign policy. The class will seek to examine the specific actions of Congress on these matters, and their causes and consequences. The class will use books, articles and original source material from committee deliberations and floor action. As we examine these topics, we will come back to larger themes – the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, the impact of partisan and bureaucratic politics, and the changing role of the United States on the world stage. All this will be discussed with a mind to the role of foreign policy practitioners.

    470.631 - Economics for Public Decision-Making

    Economic thinking provides an important set of tools for almost every aspect of public policymaking. This course aims to offer students a basic understanding of economics and its importance in public policymaking. The first half of the course will offer students an understanding of microeconomic and macroeconomic theory, including a discussion of when markets can work to achieve policy goals and when “market failures” call for government intervention. The second half of the class will use these economic tools and theories in order to survey several specific policy areas, including health policy, tax policy, and the national debt. (Core course for the MA in Public Management This course counts toward the Economic Security concentration (GSS). Elective option for Government Analytics students.)

    470.635 - Presidential Policymaking

    (formerly Executive Politics and Policymaking) The founders may have envisioned Congress as the premier branch of the federal government, but in the 20th century the president and the executive branch have typically occupied that position. This course examines presidential and bureaucratic power in the American political system. Students explore the political and policymaking dynamics at the top executive levels and within the bureaucracy. They also investigate the factors that account for variations in the power exercised by officials and consider the relationship between the executive branch and other centers of power in American politics. Finally, students will learn the processes and tools utilized by policymakers in the executive branch.

    470.636 - Political Communications: The National Stage

    This course teaches the skills to both participate in and understand modern media and examines how communications influence public opinion. Guest speakers with senior-level experience in modern communications policy will discuss their roles in how the media and communication strategies influence public opinion. The course will address competitive writing, communications strategy, communication planning and execution, news analysis, and basic rules of media relations. A comparison of executive and legislative branch communications and strategies, the importance of visuals in modern communications, and how communications has changed over time will also be examined.

    470.637 - Lobbying and Influence

    This course will explore the role of interest groups and lobbyists in the American political process. We will discuss the basics of the policymaking process, with a particular focus on how policymakers respond to different outside pressures. We will examine the ways in which these outside pressures (the lobbyists) try to influence the policymaking process, and what determines whether or not they are successful. We will investigate whether the tens of thousands of lobbyists roaming the streets of Washington improve or detract from the quality of American democracy. Students should expect to come away from this class with a greater understanding of why we get the political outcomes we do, and some ideas about how they might be able to change those outcomes, should they want to get involved.

    470.638 - Negotiating as a Leadership Skill

    Conflict is part of organizational life. People in public sector agencies and nonprofit and for-profit organizations disagree over the meaning of regulations, the use of financial resources, office space, leave time, and many other issues. Managers must have the ability to diagnose disputes and to negotiate effectively to resolve conflicts. This course provides the theoretical background and conceptual framework needed for successful negotiation and mediation. Through presentations and discussions students become familiar with the tools necessary for conflict resolution in their agencies and organizations. Analysis of a party's interests, identification of the necessary style, awareness of communication skills, and planning and feedback are part of the process of becoming an accomplished negotiator.

    470.639 - Open Government: Transparency, Technology, and Citizen Engagement

    We acknowledge that people all around the world are demanding more openness in government. They are calling for greater civic participation in public affairs, and seeking ways to make their governments more transparent, responsive, accountable, and effective. “ So reads the Open Government Declaration, signed by 57 countries, including the United States. This class is an exploration of what it means for governments to become more open. Big question include: What do we mean by “open”? What role does technology play? What happens when governments open up? What is the role of citizen engagement? How transparent should government be? Our discussions will range from the municipal to the national to the global stage. Students should expect to come away from the course with a better understanding of the promises and limits of open government, as well as some frameworks for implementation.

    470.640 - Challenges of Transnational Security

    This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of issues such as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security. Not only are transnational security issues varied in nature and scope, but their effects often are obscured by the fact that many are nascent with gradual and long-term consequences. Further, while some transnational issues may not constitute direct threats to global security, they may threaten the world economy, and quality of life of its citizens. Still others compound and reinforce each other, generating mutations of the original threats. This course will examine a small number of these transnational security issues and relevant policy-making efforts.

    470.641 - Introduction to Advocacy and Lobbying

    Lobbying is a Constitutional right guaranteed under the First Amendment. It's also big business in Washington, DC, as more than $4 billion was spent on these efforts in 2015. In fact, for many, the term “lobbying” conjures up an image of a shady character passing a cash-filled envelope to an elected official.

    The stereotype of lobbyists as greedy predators of the political system detracts from the efforts made by the tens of thousands of people, from lobbyists and concerned citizens alike, who come to Washington every year to exercise their “Right to Petition” the government to make it more responsive and accountable to the people.

    This applied course provides students with a practical understanding of how to lobby Congress and the Executive Branch. The course also teaches students about “advocacy” efforts where unregistered public affairs firms employ campaign-styled tactics to persuade decision-makers to support their client’s positions.

    470.642 - Muslim Politics and American Interests

    This course explores the governance and politics of Muslim countries and evaluates US strategic interests in those countries in light of their domestic politics. Students will compare and contrast how different Muslim countries deal with issues such as individual liberty, secularism, the role of women in public life and democratic participation. We focus on two main questions: what accounts for the wide variety of outcomes in the Muslim world on these issues and what implications does this diversity have for U.S. foreign policy options? During the course of this investigation, we will touch on the politics, economics and society of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt and Turkey; and will explore examples from other Muslim states and societies as well.

    470.644 - Democracy and Its Modern Critics

    Much of international politics in the last century can be described as a conflict between liberal democracy and its modern critics. During this period the values and political structures of liberal democracy have been extended to more parts of the world than ever before. Yet the same era also saw the emergence of powerful challengers to liberal democracy from both the right and the left. The resulting clash of ideologies defined such conflicts as World War II and the Cold War. In this course we will survey the intellectual roots of Fascism, National Socialism, and Communism. We will also examine the question of Islam and democracy looking at both its proponents and its radical critics in the Islamic world. Among those whose writings we will examine are Karl Marx, V.I. Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Carl Schmitt, Charles Maurras, Syed Qutb, Ali Shariati, Muktedar Khan, and Ruhollah Khomeini. This course counts towards the Security Studies concentration.

    470.645 - The Budgetary Process

    The federal budget process is an enormously complex mixture of administrative routines and mechanisms designed to bias decisions, avoid blame, or reduce conflict. This course explores the structures of federal budgeting in terms of its varied goals and in the context of the wider governing process. The course will review the budgetary process in both the executive and congressional branching, as well as the interaction of those two systems. In order to gain understanding of the difficult policy choices and political pressures policymakers face, students will be asked to do a simulation of a budget process within the executive branch. The role of entitlements, scoring issues, and tax policy will be examined in the context of the debate over budget policy. The course will start with a short primer on finance theory. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management. Elective option for Government Analytics students.)

    470.646 - Poverty, Inequality, Opportunity: Theoretical Foundations and Policy Implications

    This course examines enduring issues in political theory – including poverty, inequality, opportunity, citizenship, compassion, obligation, justice, and the role of government, markets, and charity - and their expression in contemporary social policy. The course provides foundations for understanding the theoretical and political dimensions of social policy - and the implications for policy solutions.

    470.648 - European Security: Russian Challenge, Western Response

    Russia has returned to an assertive foreign policy with military interventions in Ukraine and Syria and intrusion into the internal affairs of Western democracies. Two tools of Russian power demand close study: the armed forces and the state’s capacity for information warfare. Western planners and policy makers are preparing for the potential threat of Russian military attack and also for the actual threat of ongoing subversion, destabilization and “active measures.” Russia, meanwhile, continues to present itself as being under threat from the West, and is mobilizing to address that “threat.” Russia’s security initiatives, even if it views or presents them as defensive measures, could have severe consequences for its neighbors. This course will seek to answer three questions: What kind of threat does Russia pose? How adequate has been the Western response? What are the prospects for the continent’s security as the Putin system itself may be in decline? It will seek to answer these questions through seminar sessions in Washington, readings, and visits with security officials and experts in key European capitals Tallinn, Kiev, and Brussels.

    470.649 - Separation of Powers and Democratic Governance

    The separation of powers is America’s most profound and useful political contribution to the world. Studying its principles, development, and decay is a requirement for understanding American politics and is as well a potential benefit to students of aspiring democracies throughout the world. For the separation of powers enables self-government, putting democratic principles of equality and liberty into practice while moderating the powers of majorities. We will study the principles and practice of the separation of powers by examining how each elected branch of government protects its rights, while checking the rights of others. The separation of powers can be said to have produced a more just and moderate democratic form of government, but it has also occasioned the complaint that it has produced gridlock and incompetence. To investigate the strengths and drawbacks of the separation of powers, we will pay close attention to the classic texts advocating the separation of powers, such as The Federalist Papers; the great changes in American politics effected by the Civil War, the Progressive movement, and the New Deal; and the domestic and foreign policy debates in recent administrations. Special attention will be paid to the seminal opinions of the unelected branch of American government, the Supreme Court. The course will note in particular the contemporary challenges to the separation of powers, evidenced in the rise of the administrative state, the expanding powers of courts, and the growth of party government. We will also note instances of how parliamentary and presidential governments throughout the world might benefit from separation of powers principles.

    470.650 - Legal Issues in Intelligence and National Security

    This class will examine the interplay between the laws and the practices and policies of the United States’ Intelligence Community and national security system, both foreign and domestic. While discussion of the history of intelligence activities and laws dating from the origins of our colonial days will necessarily shape the framework of the class, the focus shall particularly be on current debates and challenges faced by the United States in the 21st Century.

    470.651 - Corruption and Democratic Governance

    Corruption is ubiquitous. It is a universal phenomenon that has always been around and that can be found almost anywhere. Recent years have seen much focus on the relationship between it and democratic governance. Indeed corruption and politics more generally, are inextricably and universally entwined. In this seminar we will take an in-depth look at the relationship between the two. We will ask: What is Corruption? Is it always the same thing everywhere, or does it vary depending on context or place? Do pork barrel politics and political clientelism count as corruption? What are the implications of corruption? Is it necessarily always a bad thing or can it be beneficial? Is the corruption experienced in developed countries qualitatively different from that in developing ones such that democracy suffers more in developing countries? We will seek to answer these and other questions by taking a critical look at the politics of corruption. We will look at the origins, extent, character and significance of corruption from both a developed and developing country perspective. We will cover various theories relating to corruption as well as look at a number of empirical cases.

    470.652 - Primaries, Caucuses, Conventions and the General Election

    Valuable lessons can be learned about governing from the experience of other countries as, for example, from the radical changes in the former Soviet bloc, the evolution of less developed countries, and the extraordinary experiments in government in China, India, and Russia. This course deals with the crucial problems of public management, including economic development, social services delivery, public regulation, and performance of governments themselves. Students compare U.S. practices with those in other countries, and discuss the practical problems of delivering public services in environments far more difficult than in the U.S. Students examine new approaches to government efficiency, shifts of roles to the private sector, intergovernmental devolution, and management innovation as they are tested in governments around the world.

    470.653 - Russian National Security Policy

    Russia plays a key role in most international issues and openly campaigns to realign the international system away from what it sees as American domination. This course considers the substance and process of Russian national security policy. It acquaints students with the main instruments and mechanisms available to Russian leaders to advance the country’s national interests and key policy priorities. The course considers how Russia formulates and conducts its national security policy, the history that informs it, the political culture that sustain it, the ideas and interests that drive it, and the people and institutions responsible for it. The course addresses Russia’s role in key global and regional issues and its relations with major powers. It places special emphasis on the wars in Ukraine and Syria, Russian concepts of information war, and on Russian military reform.

    470.654 - Deterrence in the 21st Century

    This course will comprise a comprehensive examination of what deterrence is and what it will require in the 21st century. It will seek to grapple with and provide insights on a range of fundamental questions of theoretical and policy import including, What comprises deterrence in the years ahead?; How should decision makers understand the many new relevant domains and capabilities (not just nuclear, but space, cyber, missile defenses, advanced conventional) in which deterrence issues and concerns may well have to be paramount in their minds?; What are the roles and requirements of extended deterrence in the emerging geopolitical environment?; How might deterrence come to play in emerging areas such as hybrid warfare?; How might deterrence fail?; and What are the intentional and unintentional escalation paths and dynamics, including cross-domain dynamics, likely to be at work in crises and conflicts ahead?

    470.655 - Ends and Means: Ethics in Leadership, Government and Citizenship

    This course explores ethical issues inherent in leadership, citizenship, politics and government. We will examine an array of leading political theorists and actors to consider enduring issues - such as justice, virtue, power, responsibility, integrity, obligation, conflict, compromise, compassion, corruption, violence, and evil – and their expression around the world today. Students will have an opportunity to explore these issues in the context of political controversies, crises, leaders or movements that most interest them, through class discussion and essay assignments.

    470.656 - Presidential Power and Politics

    This course considers the evolution of the presidency from its creation by the founders who had “their fingers crossed” while contemplating an executive agent for the emerging government, to its contemporary massive presence in our political system. The class also examines the interactions of the president with the other branches of government—Congress and the Courts—as well as the dynamics and management challenges presented within the executive branch itself. The course focuses on the leadership attributes of effective presidents, as well as aspects of personality or “character” that influence presidential performance. Finally the class focuses on the power and influence exerted by the presidency in domestic public policy and in foreign affairs. Students will be encouraged to develop their own ideas of what makes a great president ion the 21st century.

    470.657 - Energy, Security, and Defense

    This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

    470.658 - Religion and American Political Culture

    The relationship between religion and politics in the American context is one of peculiar complexity in the American context. This course has 3 main objectives: 1) to examine in general terms the role of religion in American public and political life as reflected in the debates concerning the use of religious symbolism and discourse in the public sphere; 2) to analyze how religiously informed moral argument has helped to shape public debate on key issues of public policy including the issues of civil rights, abortion, war and peace, and economic policy; and 3) to provide the necessary historical and philosophical context to help understand the present day intersection of religion and politics, and to see how previous generations of Americans approached similar problems.

    470.659 - Radicalization and Deradicalization in Terror Networks

    This course will explore some of the most contested and controversial aspects in contemporary security studies. There are a number of contentious and wide-ranging debates around ideas like radicalization not least concerning its definition, causes, and effects. This course will also prompt you to consider broader issues, such as whether there is a causal link between extremism and violent extremism? Why do some radicalized individuals to embrace terrorism, when other don’t? And should security officials concern themselves with radicalization, or only with its violent offshoots? This course will unpack many of these debates, exploring academic and theoretical literature surrounding the issues of radicalization, recruitment, and deradicalization in modern terrorist networks. It will focus primarily on cases in Europe and the United States, while also exploring new phenomena such as homegrown, self-starter, and lone wolf terrorism.

    470.660 - Program Evaluation

    Program Evaluation is the systematic use of empirical information to assess and improve the efficacy of public or non-profit programs and policies. Evaluation is increasingly required by funders and policy makers concerned with accountability and efficient use of public or philanthropic resources. In addition, many governments and organizations have built the logic of evaluation into their work through systems of performance management and monitoring. This course introduces the student to the literature, theories and approaches to evaluating organizational programs, policies and procedures. Students will acquire a broad perspective on types of program evaluation, including formative and summative evaluation, process evaluation, monitoring of outputs and outcomes, impact assessment, and cost analysis. Students gain practical experience through exercises and assignments involving the design of a conceptual framework, development of indicators, analysis of quantitative and qualitative evaluation data, and development of an evaluation plan to measure impact. In addition, topics such as experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental study designs are introduced in the context of a variety of settings, including schools, welfare agencies, mental health organizations, criminal justice settings, environmental programs, nonprofit organizations, and corporations. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.661 - Constitutional Law

    This survey course is designed to introduce students to the foundations of our constitutional system and constitutional analysis. Discussions will focus on the law as well as related policy, political, and societal implications of constitutional interpretation. The course will explore such areas as the roles and powers of the branches of federal government, separation of powers, federalism, and the commerce clause. It will also cover individual rights, due process, equal protection, church and state, and economic liberties.

    470.662 - Religion, Conflict & Peacebuilding

    The 'war on terrorism,' the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, seemingly persistent religious-ethnic-nationalist conflicts, and the rise in sectarianism in the Middle East call for an essential reexamination of the role of religion in conflict, as well as the moral norms governing the role of military force. This course explores the role of religion, ethics, and culture in conflict and peace-building. In doing so, it brings together two topics that are often addressed separately in the literature: religious and philosophical perspectives on the ethics of the use of force, and the role of religion in conflict. By showing that the two topics are intimately related, this interdisciplinary course also shows how theological and ethical perspectives interact with those of sociology of religion, political science and religious studies. In the first part of the course, we will develop a general framework for assessing the nature and causes of contemporary conflicts; the role of religion in world affairs; the major normative approaches to the use of force; and the role of religion and religious norms in promoting and preventing conflict. The second part then addresses particular issues, including terrorism, preventive war, humanitarian intervention, the conduct of war, and post-war reconciliation.

    470.664 - Identity, Insurgency and Civil War in the World System

    Societies in civil conflict are in crises of legitimacy and authority. Often we call these conflicts insurgency, revolution, or civil war. These terms can be seen as distinct. Insurgency represents an initial conflict phase, in which a competing movement threatens constitutional identity and its ruling order. Revolution establishes an alternative identity and political order. Civil war resolves the crisis of legitimacy and authority. Moreover, they often seamlessly flow together as one phase evolves into another. The course examines a number of past and present civil conflicts around the globe to illuminate larger patterns. It considers the relevance to America's situation today to the path of civil conflict in the Muslim world, post-Communist Europe, and Latin America.

    470.665 - Covert Action and National Security

    Covert action (CA) remains a highly controversial and generally misunderstood element within the Intelligence Community. Title 50 of the United States Code defines Covert Action as: “…an activity or activities of the United States Government to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly.” Lying somewhere between overt diplomatic initiatives and direct military intervention, CA is often referred to as the “third option” when addressing foreign policy issues that impact on U.S. national security interests. Through selected case studies, we will review the mechanisms by which CA is initiated, managed and executed – determining what CA can and equally important, cannot accomplish. We will also see how CA, as conducted by the CIA, is often used in a dual track program alongside State Department initiatives in an effort to resolve particularly difficult foreign policy dilemmas. CA is not unique to the U.S., and is often employed by other countries as well. Whether Russian “active measures,” or French “direct action,” variants of CA continue to form an integral, albeit highly secretive, element of statecraft.

    470.667 - Machine Learning and Neural Networks

    Machine learning and, more broadly, artificial intelligence, has recently had a series of unprecedented successes in performing tasks such as image recognition and autonomously playing video games at a higher level of accuracy and performance than humans. These successes are driven by accelerated developments in machine learning, notably neural networks. This course covers a variety of machine learning algorithms from linear regression to nonlinear neural networks. Students will learn to implement these algorithms and understand how they work. Further, students will learn how to select and implement an appropriate algorithm depending on the type of dataset they have, and will be able to use the algorithm to generate predictions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis This course will cover a variety of machine learning algorithms from linear regression to nonlinear neural networks. Students will learn to implement these algorithms and understand how they work. Further, students will learn how to select and implement an appropriate algorithm depending on the type of dataset they have, and will be able to use the algorithm to generate predictions. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.668 - The Politics and Process of American Foreign Policy

    Overuse is not the only problem with the maxim that American “politics stop at the water’s edge.” The slogan has simply never been true. American foreign policy has always been a result not just of the crises and opportunities the nation has faced but its unique politics and policy processes. American national interests are determined through the democratic processes established by the Constitution and other legislation and affected by the politics that drive the nation’s elections, its conversations and its foreign policies. These politics and processes have been remarkably consistent since the founding even as the nation’s interests have grown significantly. A better understanding of both the politics and processes of American foreign policy will help students appreciate how the country’s policies are made today and will be made in the future.

    470.670 - The Practice & Politics of U.S. Tax Policy

    Benjamin Franklin famously observed that “nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” Since Franklin’s day, however, both the form and prevalence of taxation have undergone a dramatic global transformation. This course will review the history of U.S. federal taxation and delve into the practical mechanics of taxation. It will provide students with an understanding of the processes, institutions, and political influences that shape tax policy. Finally, it will examine alternative methods of taxation and consider what the future may hold for federal tax policy. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.671 - Risk Management in the Public Sector

    The demand for robust and resilient risk management practices is increasing in the public sector as organizations continue to struggle with explicitly integrating risks into their executive decision making processes. OMB’s recent revision of A-123 places additional pressure on this imperative. The objective of this course is to introduce students to fundamental risk management and measurement practices and demonstrate their relevance to the government sector. It will help students understand risk management principles and practices and how they might apply to their organization. The goal is to give students a comprehensive view of both the risk management processes and some of the key measurement tools for understanding and mitigating operational, credit, market and enterprise risks exposures.

    470.673 - Data Visualization

    This course instructs students in various visualization techniques and software. Students will learn how to: (1) ask interesting questions about politics, (2) identify data that can be used to answer those questions, (3) collect, clean and document the data, (4) explore and analyze the data with statistical and graphical techniques, (5) create compelling, informative and accurate visualizations and (6) present these visualizations to educated audiences. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis Important Note: This course REQUIRES that you bring a laptop that supports Chrome to all class meetings.

    470.674 - Advanced Data Visualization: Interactive Web Graphics

    This course advances students’ understanding of modern data visualization by introducing concepts and tools that enable unconstrained graphical representation of information. Students will learn to create any visualization they can imagine with the expressive and powerful D3 library, used by organizations like the New York Times, the Guardian, and the Urban Institute. The course will examine the design and development of dynamic, interactive presentations that allow for personalized and non-linear modes of data exploration. Each student will publish a final project live on the web, employing the same tools and processes used by professional information designers and web developers, including HTML, CSS, Javascript, version control, and rapid application development. Prerequisite: 470.673 Data Visualization. Note: This course requires students to bring a laptop to on-site class meetings.

    470.675 - Measurement for Government Analytics

    Many of the questions posed to government and NGO researchers involve trying to systematically analyze hard-to-measure ideas. Was a program successful? How much popular support might there be for a policy that the public knows little about? How democratic is a country? This course will introduce students to the challenges of and strategies for successfully approaching measurement for government analytics. The focus is on the tasks of conceptualization, operationalization, data collection, and data validation for government analytics. Students will learn to both evaluate and use existing data sources for their own research as well as strategies for collecting and assessing original data.

    470.676 - From al-Qaeda to Islamic State: Understanding the Roots of the Global Jihad Movement

    No topic has captured the public imagination of late quite so dramatically as the specter of global jihadism. While much has been said about the way jihadists behave, their ideology remains poorly understood. This course aims to help students explore the intellectual development of jihadist ideology, focusing on how conflict has shaped Islamic theology and law. We go from the movement’s origins in the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the jihadist insurgencies of the 1990s and the 9/11 wars. What emerges is the story of a pragmatic but resilient warrior doctrine that often struggles, as so many utopian ideologies do, to consolidate the idealism of theory with the reality of practice.

    470.678 - National Security Leadership

    This course analyzes the civilian and military leadership of the principal departments and agencies of the government which are responsible for the nation's security. Attention will be placed upon the problems with which civilian (senior and mid-level political appointees, Civil Service) and military leaders are currently dealing, the processes through which they are selected and evaluated, culture and competence clashes, the inevitable tension in the civil-military relationship, and efforts to improve professionalism in a rapidly changing security environment. An important objective is to improve the critical thinking skills of the students and to inform them on the political, operational, budgetary, legal, and other factors which influence senior officials in the making of defense/homeland security strategies and policies and on the decision-making methodologies employed.

    470.679 - Armed Social Movements: Terrorism Insurgency and Crime

    Drawing on the social movement literature, this course examines the emergence of irregular armed groups and their decisions to use violence. It explains how social movements turnviolent, how violence dictates their nature, and what this nature can tell us in terms of group strengths and weaknesses. It provides the students with the analytical tools needed to distinguish between terrorism, insurgency, and crime – by focusing and understanding group strategies, behavior, and capabilities. Students will thus be familiarized with the theory on armed group formation and evolution – but the course goes further, by counterposing such theory to the complexities of practice through the consideration of key case studies. The course ends with an overview of state strategies intended to counter a wide variety of threats. Particular attention is paid to the notion of operational art and lines of effort to underline the potential and meaning of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency.

    470.680 - The Rise and Fall of Intelligence

    This course emphasizes recent changes in US intelligence and assesses the ways in which persistent and emerging issues in the field are helping or hindering the United States in achieving policy objectives. The goal is to provide answers to three questions: "How does US intelligence work in the modern world?"; "What are the larger dilemmas facing US intelligence overseers and those who use intelligence?"; and “How are these realities likely to shape the future of the Intelligence Community?” The approach will be both historical and topical. The history of intelligence offers a surprising number of illustrative cases and themes—many of which can now be examined in detail using official records and contrarian views, and can even be compared with analogues across nations and time periods. More-recent events are not as well documented in the public, official record, of course, but an understanding of earlier patterns and activities can provide valid insights on contemporary trends. The trends identified in the past and the present will then be explored for their ramifications for the future.

    470.681 - Statistics and Political Analysis

    Introduces students to the concepts central to social science research design and methods used to summarize and present quantitative data. Applications using political and public policy data will be featured. Topics covered include research question formulation, cross tabulations, controlled comparisons, hypothesis testing and bivariate regression analysis. In addition, students will learn to use R, a powerful software program that is popular among political consulting firms, think tanks and government agencies. Government Analytics core course. The course is at the introductory level; there is no prerequisite.

    470.683 - Scandal Management, Ethics, and Public Policy

    This course explores the role of ethical values and reasoning in scandal management and public policy from the standpoint of elected officials, nonprofit leaders and "you" the public manager. Theoretical perspectives are applied to practical cases concerning privacy, safety, race and affirmative action, pornography and cybersecurity, downsizing in the public sector, and leadership, among other topics. Historical and contemporary cases are discussed. Special attention is given to communication issues, public relations, and the language of ethics.

    470.684 - Legislative Language and Policymaking

    This course examines the process of drafting legislation and the consequences of legislative language in the implementation and adjudication of federal policies. Focusing on the various stages of the legislative process, this course considers the expert and political sources of the legislative language in the U.S. Congress and the importance of language in coalition-building for policy passage. Examining the interactions of Congress with the other branches of government, the course also considers how presidents, the executive branch, and the judiciary interpret statutory language.

    470.685 - The Challenge of Change: Innovation in Military Affairs

    Change is perennial in national security and military affairs, but knowing how, why, and when to embrace change is both difficult and vital. Strategies and tactics may be outdated, new ideas may be resisted, and science and technology continue to change our world faster than we can optimize. The paradox deepens with context: innovation in peacetime has one logic while innovation in war has another. This course unravels the nature of change in military affairs through four themes: ideas, materials, human capital and structure, and, appreciation of the enemy. The course explores these themes through a series of case studies from around the world. Topics include civilian development/military application of science and technology; learning from failure and success (including from other nations); institutional reactions to change; procurement and the role of industry; and, the impact and limitations of individual “champions” of change.

    470.686 - Contemporary Congressional Politics

    What are the political forces that shape the contemporary Congress and how does Congress, in turn, re-shape American politics? This course considers how political, social, and technological changes outside the institution help to explain contemporary congressional politics. Topics include: Congress’s role in the separation of powers; its responsiveness to interest groups, ideology, and partisanship; competitiveness in congressional elections and constituency representation; and contemporary media politics.

    470.687 - The Political and Social Media Revolutions

    Extraordinary innovations in personal communications technology are remaking American political life. Social media are now broadly popular across all social boundaries. Collapsing business models are restructuring media of all sorts. And the fast growing power and reach of targeting are revolutionizing elections. In some ways these changes hark back to pre-Gutenberg eras when virtually all communication was social. In other ways they repeat a classically American story in which each successive wave of popular enfranchisement was helped along by something new and more powerful in the ways a continental people kept up with the news --and stayed in touch with one another. But in enabling individuals to interrelate locally and globally simultaneously and in real time, they are without precedent. Examining these changes from each of these perspectives will be the subject of this course. This course counts towards the Concentration in Political Communications.

    470.688 - Political Institutions and the Policy Process

    Bridging the divide between political science theories of policymaking and the actual workings of the policy process in the institutions of national government, this course examines the individual contributions of each of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government as well as the interactions and struggles between those branches. How do these various institutions set the policy agenda, develop and deliberate policy alternatives, make authoritative policy decisions, and implement those decisions? In what ways are the interactions between these institutions best considered conflict or cooperation? Also, how do outside actors and institutions -- the media, interest groups, public opinion, parties and campaigns -- affect policymaking in these various institutional settings? Drawing on the Constitutional design and historical development of these institutions as well as contemporary practice, this course examines the purposes, processes, and outcomes of policymaking from an institutional perspective.

    470.689 - NGOs in Development and Global Policy-Making

    (Formerly Overview of Global Public and Nonprofit Relationship). This course provides an overview of the role of both national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in processes of development, humanitarian response, and the promotion of human rights and active citizenship. The last decade has been one of rapid change in which NGO relationships with government, the private sector, and donors has been in a state of flux, with unprecedented challenges raised about the legitimacy and effectiveness of NGO actors. The course will look at how systemic changes the evolution of transnational advocacy, the aid effectiveness process, the emergence of new development actors from countries (such as India, China and Brazil) to the primacy of the private sector has influenced NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.690 - Political Campaigns and the Media

    The purpose of this course is to understand the important interaction of politics and the media during political campaigns. Issues that eventually become policy when a candidate is victorious and wins office, usually were identified during a political campaign to win votes from various constituencies. The course will examine how the candidate decides on particular topics to stress and how the media decides to cover or not cover certain topics in the campaigns. The class will focus on particular foreign policy issues such as the War on Terrorism and the war in Iraq. It will also examine how the candidates, staffs, consultants, and the media handle these topics.

    470.691 - Digital Citizenship

    This course will explore the technological and political implications of digital identity, its relation to various models of national identity and the emerging forms of political participation based, in part, on the increasing important of social software and related tools. We will examine the differences between digital identity and "conventional" identity (an aggregate model instead of a genealogical and geographical based model) and the transition into a digital environment (biometrics, etc.). Special emphasis will be given to the political and cultural factors shaping the conception of identity.

    470.692 - Military Strategy & National Policy

    This course examines how states and other political entities use violence in pursuit of political objectives. It exposes students to the four levels of strategy—grand strategy, strategy, operations, and tactics—in a national security context. The course will then focus primarily on military strategy as such. Students will critically examine topics such as civil-military relations, land warfare, naval warfare, theories of airpower, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and nuclear strategy. The goal is to understand the embedded assumptions of these various strategic theories, and the circumstances under which they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful. Readings include primary texts that were important in the development of military theory as well as historical cases studies.

    470.693 - Comparative Democracies

    This course uses the comparative method to look at the varieties of democracies that exist today. In the course, we will ask what is democracy, how do we measure it, and how does it vary across space and time? We will look at how democracy manifests in different constitutional forms e.g. parliamentary versus presidential. We will examine how different electoral and party systems influence variation in outcome within the set of democracies, and how social cleavages interact with, and are molded by, these systems. Further, we will use the answers to these questions to explore the issue of democratic consolidation and to ask why some countries become and stay democratic, while others do not. Case studies will be drawn from Europe, Latin America and Asia.

    470.694 - Big Data Management Systems

    This course introduces students to big data management systems such as the Hadoop system, MongoDB, Amazon AWS, and Microsoft Azure. The course covers the basics of the Apache Hadoop platform and Hadoop ecosystem; the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS); MapReduce; common big data tools such as Pig (a procedural data processing language for Hadoop parallel computation), Hive (a declarative SQL-like language to handle Hadoop jobs), HBase (the most popular NoSQL database), and YARN. MongoDB is a popular NoSQL database that handles documents in a free schema design, which gives the developer great flexibility to store and use data. We cover aspects of the cloud computing model with respect to virtualization, multitenancy, privacy, security, and cloud data management. Prerequisite: 470.763 Database Management Systems

    470.695 - Proseminar: Essentials of Public and Private Management

    (The purpose of the class is to help equip students to operate effectively in both the public and private sectors. The class will cover three major topics: (1) an overview of managing public and private organizations, with special attention to their differing missions, capabilities, and environments; (2) a survey of important relationships between the public and private sectors; and (3) the need for improved coordination between the public and private sectors to achieve important public purposes. Students will be encouraged to make the course an interactive one and to share their personal knowledge in the context of the issues discussed. Students will be expected to complete a significant paper on a relevant topic approved by the instructor. (Core course for the MA in Public Management and the MA in Government/MBA program)

    470.696 - Ethics and Privacy in Intelligence Operations

    This course will address the ethical dilemmas and privacy issues that challenge intelligence and government decision makers in an increasingly complex operational and technological environment. We will examine basic moral, ethical and privacy considerations from all sides at several key points in intelligence operations from collection to covert action. The course will analyze the evolving nature of privacy concerns worldwide, with an emphasis on the balance between individual rights and national security needs as executed by intelligence agencies. Students will examine the policy implications inherent in seeking to address these issues. The readings will include diverse and opposing viewpoints as well as practicums and simulations to allow debate of the key positions in "real world" situations. Prior enrollment in 406.665 "The Art and Practice of Intelligence" or 470.711 "Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy" is strongly encouraged.

    470.697 - Intelligence and Counterterrorism

    Counterterrorism is essentially an intelligence war. By definition, both sides use small forces and clandestine means, hiding their presence and activities not only from each other, but often from friends and allies as well. This course will explore the many roles of intelligence in every facet of counterterrorism, and ask students to evaluate their practical, legal, and moral effects and implications. It will also look at the terrorists’ own intelligence activities, and the “intelligence race” between terrorists and counterterrorists. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, students would be well served to have a basic familiarity with intelligence and terrorism before the class starts.

    470.698 - American Exceptionalism

    This course will seek to give students a deeper understanding of where the idea of American exceptionalism comes from and what its implications are for America, both domestically and abroad. Students will gain this understanding from reading classic works in the area that trace America’s political development, starting with its Puritan heritage. Early American works will be studied from this period, along with Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. Seminal works of modern political science scholarship on this question will also be assigned, including works from Seymour Martin Lipset, Louis Hartz, Daniel Boorstin, and others. The course will then extrapolate from these historic roots to contemporary issues of America’s foreign policy and rationale for its foreign interventions. The course will conclude with questions of America’s standing in the world, which has in recent years, declined and seek to understand why this is so and what it means for the future understanding of American exceptionalism.

    470.701 - Congress: Why the First Branch Matters

    Congress is the First Branch, “the People’s Branch,” and one of the most powerful legislatures the world has ever known. At this moment in history, however, the people do not assess the institution favorably and political scientists and pundits have declared it the “broken branch.” Is Congress “broken” or merely reflective of our political times? In an era of “unorthodox lawmaking” is a return to “regular order” and “textbook lawmaking” realistic or a fantasy? This course will discuss these questions in the context of the evolving nature of Congress as an institution. The class will examine the institutional development of Congress and explore changes in its representative and legislative functions, as well as constitutional responsibility of holding the “power of the purse.” Congress remains a dynamic institution and it behooves citizens to understand its complexity and centrality to governance in the U.S.

    470.702 - Introduction to Law and Legal Methodology

    This course is taught by a sitting federal trial judge and introduces students to the fundamentals of legal analysis. Students will interpret the Constitution, statutes and case law. The course will cover how the federal court system works and will read and dissect several Supreme Court, circuit and trial court decisions. Students will learn how to "brief" a case to extract its essence and will understand what the holding and the principles articulated by the court are as well as the procedural posture of the case. The objective of the course it to train students in the fundamentals of how to approach the study of law.

    470.703 - Urban Data Analytics

    This class applies data analytic skills to the urban context, analyzing urban problems and datasets. Students will develop the statistical skills to complete data-driven analytical projects using data from city agencies, federal census data, and other sources, including NGOs that work with cities. We will examine a variety of data sets and research projects, both historical and contemporary, which examine urban problems from a quantitative perspective. Over the course of the term, each student will work on a real-world urban data problem, developing the project from start to finish, including identifying the issue, developing the research project, gathering data, and analyzing it, culminating in a research paper. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.704 - Strategies in Insurgent and Asymmetric Warfare

    This class examines the phenomenon of irregular warfare—of insurgencies and counterinsurgencies in particular—through a historical lens. The course will give you students insight into the origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of irregular wars, as well as the principles of counterinsurgency theory and practice. Through the course, you will analyze current irregular wars, understand what caused them and whether they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful, and see how they can be combated.

    470.705 - The 2016 Election

    Conventional political wisdom asserts the 2016 election – with the bombastic Donald Trump and the scandal-ridden Hillary Clinton on top of their party’s respective tickets – is unlike any witnessed in the nation’s history. This course will test that thesis in real time. The present mimics the past, as Solomon wisely, and more elegantly, penned a few millennia ago. After first laying a historical foundation for understanding the evolution, or devolution, of U.S. elections, this course will examine every twist and turn of Election 2016, while equipping students with the tools to understand contemporary media strategies. Guest lecturers include some of the nation’s top political reporters.

    470.706 - Federalism: The Interplay Between States and Capitol Hill

    State governments are the laboratories of policy innovation and in turn often fuel action at the federal level. There are many meaningful lessons from successes in state government policymaking that could be informative to policymakers on Capitol Hill. What is the nature of the relationship between legislators on the federal level and legislators on the state level? What are the incentives or disincentives for Members of Congress to interact with state legislators or vice versa? This course will address the general principles of federalism, then interplay between Congress and the state legislatures and the role that state legislatures play in shaping and driving policy discussions on Capitol Hill. The class will provide an in-depth analysis of specific policy issues that are currently debated on both Capitol Hill and the state legislatures in order to facilitate a comparison and critical examination of the public policy debate at the federal and state levels. A visit to the Maryland General Assembly for a visit with the Governor and legislative leaders is planned.

    470.708 - Unleashing Open Data with Python

    Learning the basics of the computing language, Python, empowers people to retrieve and analyze data in new ways. During the course, students with no prior coding experience will learn how to gather and analyze data in ways that are not possible without the assistance of programming. After covering the fundamentals of syntax and logical thinking, students learn how to read, create and edit files. Then, building on that knowledge, students interact with online resources through web scraping and APIs. Finally, students will use the data they collected to create their own analysis and publish their research to a website. The class equips students to add programming components to their future work, giving them an advantage in a competitive workplace.

    470.709 - Quantitative Methods

    Solutions to both political and policy problems increasingly require an understanding of how to understand and analyze data. Campaigns collect data to identify potential supporters and donors. Government agencies analyze data to evaluate programs. Research organizations use data to support their policy positions. This course will provide you with the knowledge and skills needed to perform a cutting-edge statistical analysis. You will learn how to design and test regression models using Stata, an incredibly powerful and widely-used statistical software package. Other topics include interaction terms, measures of fit, internal and external validity, logistic and probit regression, and translating statistical findings for broad audiences. The focus of the course will be on using statistical methods in an applied manner. We will concentrate on using statistics to answer political and policy questions, not on the underlying mathematical theories. Recommended prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.710 - Advanced Quantitative Methods

    Extends to the concepts taught in Quantitative Methods. Provides students with the tools needed to construct and evaluate advanced regression models. Topics include logs and polynomials, instrumental variables, fixed effects, time series and forecasting models, dynamic causal effect models and regression discontinuity models. Government Analytics core course. Prerequisite: 470.709 Quantitative Methods.

    470.711 - Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy

    This course examines the role that intelligence plays in the formation of national security policy. The course explores the forces and events that have shaped U.S. intelligence. It examines the steps involved in producing intelligence from requirements through collection, analysis and the actual making of policy. The role of intelligence in the major intelligence issues facing the United States today will be discussed as well. The main text for the course will be Dr. Lowenthal’s book of the same title published by CQ Press which has been called the “best introduction to the role of the U.S. intelligence community in the national security policy-making process.”

    470.712 - The American Civil Trial

    This course, taught by a sitting federal trial judge, will introduce students to the trial as a critical element of the American legal system. Using a civil trial as a model, students will explore the procedures leading up to trial – motions practice and discovery – and the format of the trial itself, from opening statements to evidentiary issues, direct and cross examination, expert testimony and closing argument. Students will read excerpts from actual trial and pretrial proceedings and summaries of some noteworthy American trials. The course will give students a practical understanding and a unique perspective of the workings of the American legal system.

    470.713 - Resisting Tyranny: Strategic Nonviolent Conflict

    War practitioners, policy makers, and security studies scholars study asymmetric warfare to understand why poorly armed insurgents effectively resist and even defeat technologically advanced and materially stronger armies. This course studies a perfect asymmetry in nonviolent warfare where unarmed ordinary people are able to effectively challenge and eventually defeat a fully armed, resource-rich regimes. In fact, historically, nonviolent movements have been twice as effective against violent regimes as armed insurgencies. This course will consider skills of organized populations in inter-state and intra-state conflicts, including anti-dictatorship, anti-occupation, anti-corruption, anti-violence struggles and analyze how disciplined civilians use nonviolent strategies and tactics to galvanize large and diverse participation, place their violent opponents in dilemma, make repression backfire and cause defections among adversaries' pillars of support.

    470.714 - Policymaking in the U.S. and Latin America: Perceptions and Misconceptions

    Formerly taught part in Mexico, this summer it will be taught solely in DC with new course material. The course will introduce students to major political trends in Latin America and the state of U.S. relationships with countries in the region with a focus on US-Latin American relations (highlighting Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Guatemala). The course will cover both the history of the countries and the U.S. relationship with each.

    470.715 - Political Conventions: Communication, Campaigning, and Controversy

    The Democratic and Republican National Political Conventions being held this summer could turn out to be two of the most exciting and interesting conventions in several decades. The course will look ahead and discuss, analyze and preview the July GOP convention in Cleveland and the Democratic Convention also being held in July in Philadelphia. We will look at how a brokered convention that goes beyond one ballot would work. Could Trump be denied the GOP nomination if he has the majority of primary votes? Would a Trump GOP platform be against much of what Republican Party believes in? Could there be a compromise “establishment” candidate to emerge at the convention? Will Bernie and Hillary be able to work together or will their supporters fracture the Democratic Party in Philadelphia this summer? Will a progressive Democratic platform be too liberal for winning the general election? The class will discuss and analyze the role of the media—traditional and social-and how they present the conventions this summer and the role media has played in previous political conventions. We will also discuss how the various candidates and the political parties use the media to get out their message. From the 1924 Democratic Convention that went a record 103 ballots to the 1932 Democratic Convention where Roosevelt became the first candidate ever to address the delegates in person to the “police riot” Democratic Convention in Chicago in 1968, the class will go over the history of America’s political conventions. We will discuss the controversies of the past and the upcoming controversies expected this summer. We will look at how television changed the political conventions in 1960 and how social media and the Internet will be changing the national political conventions in the summer of 2016. This will be an exciting and interesting course following the end of the primary campaign season and looking ahead to the summers’ Democratic and Republican conventions!

    470.716 - Road to the White House: The General Election

    This course examines all aspects of the presidential contest including looking at the role and views of the candidates on the leading domestic and foreign policy issues of the campaign. The class will analyze the role of the media, the impact of the internet, and the financial requirements of the campaign. The course will assess the pivotal role of the campaign managers and consultants and key outside advisors from the worlds of politics, business and entertainment. A key ingredient of the class will be the SAIS Center on Politics & Foreign Relations, the Financial Times and JHU Graduate School of Government breakfasts in the fall that students will be able to attend. The class will also watch and analyze the presidential debates. On election night, the class will hold a reception looking at the returns. After the new president is elected, the class will focus on how the country's new Chief Executive puts together his new Cabinet and team of advisors.

    470.717 - Risk, Politics, and Public Policy

    The future is an unknown land for individuals and for governments. It poses opportunities for gains and possibilities of losses. The risks of losses include terrorist acts, wars, natural catastrophes, poor health and many other misfortunes. Individuals, including public officials, perceive risks in different ways, and this class will look at classical, behavioral, and cultural theories of risk perception. Governments assess and manage collective risks, often with regard to politics and the concerns of voters. This course will analyze and evaluate such collective responses to risk. The course will be of use to students interested in homeland security, foreign affairs, environmental policy, health care, social security, and financial market regulation.

    470.718 - The 2016 Election: Campaigning, Communicating, and Winning

    The class will follow the 2016 presidential campaign as it unfolds in the fall. We will follow and analyze the debate strategy of each of the Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. The course will discuss and analyze the media and social media of the various presidential candidates, including how they use these platforms for fundraising, and we will look at how the traditional media and social media are covering the campaign. We will closely follow and debate the issues, the strategies, the consultants and the campaign tactics each candidate is using to appeal to more voters. My Center for Politics & Foreign Relations and the Financial Times will be hosting most of the GOP and Democratic presidential candidates, senior political correspondents, political consultants and leading fundraisers at our Issues Forum 2016. Students in the class are invited to attend these forums as an integral part of the course. We have already hosted Senator Bernie Sanders, Lincoln Chafee (who announced his run for president in our forum this summer) and Senator Jim Webb speak. Looking to have a lively, interactive and interesting class with students doing oral reports acting as their favorite presidential candidate and explaining his/her winning strategy. Also will have students be political reporter/blogger covering the campaign and explain their media strategy for covering the presidential campaigns.

    470.720 - Science and Government

    Science forms the heart of many of our most contentious national issues, from climate change to stem cell research, from teaching evolution to exploring space. Americans view science with both suspicion and awe. We support science watchdog organizations, while we also support increased spending on scientific and medical research. We worry that science opens Pandora's box, yet we look to scientists and engineers to provide solutions in fields such as medicine and alternative energy. This course examines this national paradox, by exploring the interrelations among government, the scientific community, and concerned citizens. Because of its role as both patron and regulator, the federal government is the chief actor in these science dramas. Through lectures, readings, and discussion, the course will look at government research agencies such as the NIH and NASA, at federally sponsored research in universities and companies, at major science initiatives such as the Human Genome Project and the National Nanotechnology Initiative, and at oversight organizations both within government and without. The course will pursue the questions of why and how the government supports so much science, and what role science & engineering play in the nation's social and political aspirations.

    470.721 - Comparative Federalism: The United States and the European Union

    Federalism the division of power and sovereignty between a central authority and local governments has emerged as one of the most important themes of contemporary Western politics in both the United States and Europe. For the United States the division of power between the Federal and State governments lies at the very heart of the American Constitution. At the same time disputes over the precise balance of Federal and State power has been a major fault line in American politics since Federalists and anti-Federalists at the time of the founding. For Europe the destruction of two World Wars showed the destructive side of nationalism and acted as an impetus to leverage Europe’s common history and cultural inheritance to forge a supranational political and economic union dedicated to peace and prosperity. Since the end of the Cold War and the Treaty of Maastricht the process of European integration has speeded up rapidly resulting in a common European currency as well as common legal and political institutions. At the same time concerns about the perceived loss of sovereignty, national identity, and democratic accountability have led in some places to backlashes against Brussels and resurgent nationalism. There is also the broader question of the European Union’s goals and identity is it principally an economic union or is it a super-state in the making? In this course we will explore Federalism in its institutional, legal, philosophical, and historical aspects in both America and Europe.

    470.722 - Defense Intelligence in War and Peace

    “Intelligence and War” will examine the use and misuse of intelligence in the warning of, preparation for, and conduct of war. It will highlight its endemic nature, and its applicability to prevailing in as well as preventing armed conflict. The evolution of intelligence capabilities will be reviewed, and its current status and relevance examined.

    470.723 - Western Political and Constitutional Thought

    This is intended as a broad survey of Western political thought, particularly as it developed in the European historical context from the classical era to the 20th century. The thinkers we will discuss can be thought of as engaged in what Robert Hutchins called a "great conversation" across the centuries on the central questions of political philosophy. These questions include: What are the purposes of government? What is the best form of government? How are justice and liberty best realized in a political system? What are rights - and where do they come from? What is sovereignty and in whom does it reside? What principles make political authority legitimate? Is disobedience to political authority ever justified? In many ways these questions are perennial ones, as relevant in our own time as in the distant past. Moreover the divergent systems of thought developed to answer these questions continue to shape much of contemporary political life - e.g. democracy, constitutionalism, liberalism, socialism, and conservatism. Among the political philosophers who will be examined are Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, John Locke, Edmund Burke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Hannah Arendt, and Leo Strauss.

    470.724 - Managing Dangerous Futures: Global Political Risk Analysis

    Political risk affects almost every major decision that governments, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and even individuals make, sometimes turning what appears to be a good decision into a bad one, with severe implications. However, few people really understand political risk or how it can be evaluated and mitigated. The goals of this course are to ensure that all students can assess the political risk of a particular country or situation; assess the political risk of a particular business investment; take a much broader perspective on the possible sources of political risk; understand how the way people think and groups function preclude effective decision making (thus making bad decisions more common); evaluate risks using a variety of different risk assessment tools; and leverage a variety of mechanisms to improve risk management.

    470.726 - Education Policy and Federalism

    This course will explore contemporary issues in education policy, with a focus on the evolving relationships between federal, state, and local governments in guiding America’s schools. Topics will include the successes and failures of the soon-to-be-reauthorized federal No Child Left Behind Act, debates over the wisdom of national academic standards, the legal environment for public school finance, the growing role of nongovernmental organizations like Teach for America and national charter school networks in public education, collective bargaining in education, and the political dynamics of education reform. The course will include group discussions and papers in which students will be required to select and defend specific policy positions in the areas discussed. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.727 - The Politics of the New Administration

    The course will allow students to follow the new administration of America's 45th president as it develops. We will study the politics of the new administration ranging from the selection of the president's Cabinet to his major domestic programs including health care, the environment and energy programs. We will debate and discuss the new administration's foreign policy goals and objectives around the world including Iraq and Afghanistan and the War on Terror. The main issue facing the new administration will be the economy and we will study how the new administration handles this ongoing crisis. We will compare how Franklin Roosevelt handled his first 100 days during the great Depression and compare them today's severe recession and how the new President does or does not rise to the problem of restoring faith in the American economy. The course will also include guest speakers -- from members of the new administration-and journalists who cover the White House. Students will take on the role of advisors to the president and present a paper on the political perspectives of a specific domestic or foreign policy initiative the new president has put forth. This course counts towards the concentration in Political Communication.

    470.729 - The Presidency and Congress

    This course examines the dynamics of the separation of powers, focusing on the two elected branches. We will study the tensions and conspiracies between and within those branches and look at competing notions of leadership, partisanship, representation, and constitutional government by focusing on the institutions, the revolutions within them, the crises that have defined them, and the character of the men and women who have shaped them. This course counts towards the concentration in Legal Studies.

    470.730 - Intellectual Property Law

    This course, taught by a sitting federal judge, will survey intellectual property law, including patent, copyright, and trademark law. The course will cover the basics of intellectual property and will be taught like a law school class, using the case method. The course will also introduce students to the fundamentals of legal analysis. There will be no exam; students will be required to write a paper..

    470.732 - Communications and Congress

    This course will examine how Congress communicates with the American people through the eyes of a press guy. It will teach students how to construct a sound bite just as it teaches the history of Congressional relations with the Fourth Estate. How do you go about writing a press release, talking to a reporter, driving a message and navigating the confusing world of Capitol Hill ? What’s it like being a Press Secretary for a Member of Congress? In addition to these contemporary applied skills, an historical approach will be taken in considering the evolution of Congress as an institution. Contemporary examples, where appropriate, will be used to underscore points made in the texts. This counts towards the Political Communications concentration.

    470.734 - Illiberal Democracies: Turkey and Russia

    This course will examine what qualities illiberal democracies have (and the prospects for reform) by comparing Turkey and Russia. The course will employ the comparative method covering the works of Gabriel Almond and others and also review the criteria for liberal democracies (free elections, political participation, human rights, free speech, etc.). Students will see how democracy makes itself compatible with authoritarian rule with the case study of the rise of Putin and Russia and Erdogan and Turkey. Classic political science works and contemporary authors will be assigned.

    470.735 - Politics and the Media

    Quickly accelerating changes in the ways we get our news are compelling newsmakers and journalists alike to rethink their craft, and their relationships with their audiences, with repercussions for policy, politics and public discourse. This course will examine how innovations – like social networking, mobile platforms, behavioral targeting, etc --are providing journalists and political leaders with new ways to interact with citizens. It will look at how the rapid migration of consumers to the web is leading news organizations of all types to rethink how they organize, pay for and think about themselves. Students in this course will use real time news developments in the nation’s capital as a laboratory for observing the evolving ways news sources and reporters and the public interact. Questions to be considered include whether this digitized and networked environment has implications for the pace and character of changes in public policy. The course will invite practitioners in journalism and politics who are dealing with these developments daily to share their sense of where all this is leading. This course counts towards the Political Communication Concentration.

    470.737 - The Media and Presidential Politics

    (This course counts towards the Political Communications Concentration.) This class will look at presidential politics during presidential campaigns and how the candidates work with and against the media. All forms of media from print reporting to television to the new applications of the Internet and beyond will be explored and discussed as we pay particular attention to the role the media play in conveying the president’s message to the public. The course will follow key events in the Obama administration, such as, for example, the financial meltdown or growing American involvement in Afghanistan and use them as case studies to better understand the interaction among politicians, policymakers, and the media. We will also look back at former presidents and previous presidential campaigns to compare with the current Obama administration and the 2008 presidential campaign. We will analyze how the 2012 presidential campaigns are just beginning and how the media is now covering possible potential rivals to Obama.

    470.739 - Emergency Management and Communications

    A series of unforeseen and unprecedented emergencies in recent years have posed steep challenges to private businesses, non-profit institutions, and local, state and federal government. Terrorist attacks, pandemics, natural disasters, financial collapse and other crises pose unique challenges to policy makers. Increasingly, people in authority have had to implement plans, make announcements, and order evacuations, often on short notice, and bereft of effective tools. This has caused the public, private, and non-profit sectors to invest more resources on preparation. This course will examine approaches that have been taken with an eye toward minimizing damages and enhancing the security of the greatest number of people. It will examine some that have succeeded and others that have not. On occasion, guests, who have had been on the front lines in emergency situations will appear in class to enhance students' appreciation of the extent of these potential threats and to share their ideas as to how they might best be handled. Readings will focus on case studies of historical and contemporary emergency situations and how policy makers addressed them.

    470.740 - Cyber Policy, Strategy, Conflict and Deterrence

    This course will provide an overview of current issues in the cyber realm, focusing on policy and conflict from a U.S. and international perspective. We will begin with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and consider the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through the use of case studies, we will examine previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. We will analyze the roles of several different types of cyber actors including state actors, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups and private sector/business responses. This course will also examine the issue of cyber deterrence, and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. A technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.

    470.741 - Democracy, Elections and US Foreign Policy

    Elections have been described as the primary vehicle for launching and reasserting democracy in any country. Few, however, have considered the connection between the two. In this course, students will consider initially the various ways by which democracy has been defined, asking: What is democracy, why is it important and what “values” related to it should be upheld in holding elections? Students will also look at different electoral systems used for organizing elections around the world. Do these systems make a difference to election outcomes? Are there consequences for choosing one over another? Real world examples, including the controversy surrounding the 2000 American presidential election, will be used to consider whether greater attention should be paid to the linkage between democracy and elections. This course counts towards the Concentration in Security Studies (MA Government).

    470.742 - Politics of Cybersecurity

    In recent years, the United States has become dependent on cyber virtual networks as the engine for our society. However, this digital infrastructure remains extremely vulnerable to cyber attacks. Protecting the networks we rely on presents unique challenges, as networks are without borders and bear the stress of attack millions of times each day. This course will explore the challenges and political factors impacting the judicial, legislative, executive branch agencies of Department of Defense, Homeland Security, National Security Agency, and private industry as they all work to secure and create a national cyber security apparatus. The intelligence community is facing an enormous challenge in working to prevent the transfer of the United States' intellectual property and identifying the cyber attackers. We will discuss the political implications of establishing laws addressing how information is to be shared between governments and industry and the authorities needed for the DoD and intelligence community to operate domestically. We will discuss the impact of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and examine the evolving relationship of Congressional oversight and legislative mandates. Issues such as jurisdiction of congressional committees, the budget, and the authorization and appropriations processes will be covered. Major policy and counter-terrorism issues of special concern to Congress will also be addressed in this course. Guest speakers will be invited from DHS, Capitol Hill and the media, allowing us to examine the issues from a variety or perspectives.

    470.743 - Data Mining and Predictive Analytics

    Many government agencies engage in data mining to detect unforeseen patterns and advanced analytics, such as classification techniques, to predict future outcomes. In this course, students will utilize IBM SPSS Modeler to investigate patterns and derive predictions in areas such as fraud, healthcare, fundraising, human resources and others. In addition, students will learn to build segmentation models using clustering techniques in an applied manner. Integration with other statistical tools and visualization options will be discussed. Prerequisites: 470.681 Statistics and Policy Analysis and 470.709 Quantitative Methods.

    470.744 - Trade and Security

    Since World War II, American trade policy has been implemented through agreements with a growing array of foreign governments to encourage global economic integration by lowering barriers to international trade. The course will begin with a look at the foundation of this approach to trade policy at the end of World War II and the relationship the Roosevelt and Truman administrations saw between integration and security policy. It will then introduce students to the American trade regime of the early 21st century and the WTO, and examine the ways the U.S. governments has adapted this regime to regional challenges arising from relationships with Japan, China, and the Muslim world, and to policy issues, like resource dependence, sanctions and export controls. The course will have a midterm exam on America’s trade regime and the concepts that have shaped it, and a final paper, in which students will examine an issue of their choice in depth. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.745 - Terrorist Financing Analysis and Counterterrorist Finance Techniques

    The course examines how terrorist groups finance their operations. It also explores current policy approaches to curb financial support to terrorists through the application of U.S. and international sanctions, in particular how multilateral fora, such as the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, disrupt and deter terrorist financing. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of the key tools, including law enforcement, diplomacy, and intelligence, that are used to counter terrorists’ financial networks and activities. Through this course, students will develop proficiency in a series of analytic methods used to study terrorist financing and counter financing. Students will use structured analytic tools such as weighted ranking methods, scenario trees, causal flow diagramming, hypothesis testing, and utility analysis, as well as game theory and logic to form analytic judgments. Prior coursework or professional experience in intelligence, (counter) terrorism, or finance recommended.

    470.746 - Iran: Security Policy of a Revolutionary State

    This course will provide the analytical and contextual skills required to understand the current political and security situation of Iran. After laying out the context of the Iranian Revolution through a brief examination of the Pahlavi years, the course then weaves together Iran’s political, military, diplomatic, social, economic development during the turbulent years between Iran’s 1978-1979 revolution and the 2015 nuclear agreement—covering a time period of roughly 1941 to the present day. This course covers three main inter-related topics: the history and development of the modern Iranian state; the interaction between state and society in modern Iran; and Iran’s diplomatic history in the 20th and 21st centuries. The course concludes with a discussion of Iran’s present-day foreign, security, and defense structures and processes.

    470.748 - The Art & Practice of Intelligence

    This course will examine what intelligence is and how it is done. It will place a strong emphasis on effort on the limits of the possible including limits on knowledge, ethical limits, and political limits. Drawing on historical examples, the course will look at the various types of intelligence collection and how they interact with each other. It will explore the analytic process and the interface between analysts and policymakers. I it will examine the connections between intelligence and policy formulation and execution in various aspects of the national security realm. The class will conclude with a brief exploration of differing concepts and practices in other countries.

    470.749 - Running for Office

    You can see yourself now – taking the oath of office, giving speeches, and making critical decisions impacting thousands or millions of people. But how do you get there? This class provides a practical guide for students who are interested in exploring a run for elected office. Students will learn how to assess if and when they are ready to run, which office to run for, and most importantly, develop the critical skills needed as a candidate to wage and win a contested campaign. These skills include writing a campaign plan and budget, hiring staff and consultants, learning how to fundraise, and working with the media. This class dispels the myth that only those independently wealthy can serve in office by giving students a real understanding of what it takes to run and win.

    470.750 - Big Data Analytics: Tools and Techniques

    The explosion of data collection methods from a vast array of data sources in volumes previously unimaginable has tested the limits of traditional database systems, which are not able to scale to the requirements of massive data. Big Data is the field of data studies where the high-speed computing advancements made possible by cloud computing meet with the storage capabilities of online database systems. This course explores large-scale data-intensive database technologies. We will discuss the characteristics and architectural challenges surrounding scalable databases, how these databases are constructed, and explore geo-visualization techniques of data processed using Big Data Analytics. Students will work in a cloud computing environment to build Hadoop clusters, NoSQL databases, and work with other open source technologies to process vast data stores of Census data, polling data, and twitter feeds. Prerequisite: Geographic Information Systems, Geospatial Data Modeling

    470.751 - Politics and Security in the MIddle East

    This course will examine U.S. policy responses to the changing political and security landscape of the Middle East. Bringing together historical events, primary sources and secondary literature and contextual analysis, this course will provide the necessary analytical skills required to develop a sophisticated understanding of the current political and security situation in the Middle East. Each module, students will engage key topics in modern Middle Eastern politics and security, including the origins of Islam, Arab nationalism and its rise to prominence, the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts, the internal/external struggles against Western imperialism, the competition among Arab states for regional dominance, the Cold War the Middle East, America’s relations with Iran and Iraq, the oil economy of the Gulf, the challenge minorities pose to the region, the rise of Islamic radicalism, the Arab Spring, and the rise of the Islamic State.

    470.752 - Intelligence Analysis

    Intelligence analysis is fundamentally about understanding and communicating to decision makers what is known, not known, and surmised, as it can best be determined. Students will read seminal texts on intelligence analysis, discuss the complex cognitive, psychological, organizational, ethical, and legal issues surrounding intelligence analysis now and in the past, and apply analytic methodologies to real-world problems. Prerequisite: One of the following: 470.620 “Introduction to Intelligence in the Five Eyes Community,” 470.711.51 “Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy,” AS.470.748.51 “The Art and Practice of Intelligence,” or permission of instructor.

    470.753 - Problems in State and Local Government:Can They be Fixed?

    State and local budget and tax systems are not optimal — and in many cases not functional — for 21st century governance. This course will look at aspects of budget and revenue systems that could be modernized and improved, and how that might be accomplished. Areas studied will include use of budget projections, tax expenditure policies, sales, income, and property tax issues, and business taxation, as well as issues of whether and/or how use of newer technologies and newer ways of doing business should be taxed. It also will consider some current trends that could further undermine governance, such as proposals to write specific funding formulas into state constitutions. Issues and trends will be considered across states, and students will be assigned specific states to study in depth and discuss during class time. Both policy solutions and the interest groups and political strategies that are necessary to achieve solutions will be discussed. The course will begin with a brief introduction to state and local finance.

    470.754 - Global Climate Change and U.S. Energy Security

    While the world negotiates a new climate change treaty, the U.S. continues to work through its domestic climate change policy. Twenty states have developed state-wide climate planning initiatives and there are regional policy initiatives as well. At the federal level, legislation to address climate policy and energy security are being debated in Congress. In addition, as a follow up to a 2007 Supreme Court ruling, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is moving forward with a number of regulatory actions to address greenhouse gas emissions. This course will address each of these international and national efforts and their implications for the further development of climate change and energy security policy in the U.S. The economic and social issues associated with these policies will be examined as well.

    470.755 - Sustainable Cities in Germany: Lessons for the United States

    This course addresses two important, but overlooked global urban phenomena – the development of world-class urban sustainability plans in Berlin and the Stuttgart region and their suitable transfer and application to cities in the U.S. This class will be designed to expose the student to the evolution and performance of renewable energy, public transit, water infrastructure, workforce training and social inclusion innovations - in these metropolitan regions and the ways that they may (or not) be considered suitable for adoption in the US. By the end of this course the student will have developed an appreciation for the pioneering urban sustainability programs of Berlin and Stuttgart and the phenomena of cross-national policy transfer to the U.S.

    470.757 - Nonfiction Writing and Politics

    Clear and persuasive writing is often essential in Washington and this course will introduce students to three of the most important forms of non-fiction writing: opinion journalism, magazine writing, and personal essay and memoir writing. Students will be required to produce finished work in each of these genres and will read and critique each others’ efforts. They will also be expected to read and bring to class examples of successful nonfiction writing. The section of the course on opinion journalism will analyze editorial and op ed writing and discuss how to make an argument that is convincing even to those who do not share one’s point of view. The section on magazine writing will focus on the organization and structure of successful magazine pieces such as those appearing in such publications as The New Yorker, Vanity Fair and The Weekly Standard. The section on memoir writing will examine narrative structure and techniques useful to a writer who seeks to tell his own story.

    470.759 - American Political Development

    This course examines the factors that promote stability and change in American politics. Broad in historical scope, this course considers the development of the American state and its institutions as well as the continuities and complexities of American political culture by analyzing key moments of institution-building and policy change from the American Founding to the present. Key questions include: What explains the character of the American state? What are the consequences of the American state and its policies? Is America “exceptional” in these and other regards? What roles and functions do political institutions perform? What roles do culture, ideas, and rhetoric play in social, political, and economic life? How have these various roles and functions changed over time?

    470.760 - Comparative Intelligence Systems

    Do all countries conduct their intelligence activities in the same way? If not, what are the reasons for the differences? This class will consider theoretical ways of understanding and assessing national intelligence systems. It will look at political, historical, and cultural factors which may influence the development and functions of nations’ intelligence agencies and systems. The class will include an examination of the "ways of intelligence" of the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR/Russia, Germany, China, and Iraq, among others.

    470.762 - U.S.- Mexico Relations: Migration, Trade, and Organized Crime

    Mexico shares a 2,000-mile border with the United States, is America's third largest trading partner, and, until recently, was the largest source of immigration to the United States. The ties between the two countries are deep, but they also generate controversy and conflicted emotions on both sides of the border. This course explores the economic, political, and security relationship between Mexico and the United States, the way citizens on both sides of the border see each other, and how the governments – national, state, and local – manage day-to-day issues. The course will involve reading, discussion, and probably one or two video conferences with Mexican students to discuss some of these issues and compare perspectives across the border.

    470.766 - Economic Growth:The Politics of Development in Asia, Africa and Beyond

    What makes some countries grow while others do not? What accounts for successful economic development versus stagnation? As these questions become ever more relevant in an increasingly globalized world, this course offers an introduction to the topic. The class will provide an overview of the main classic and current theories of economic development. It will then go on to explore specific current issues in development, including: development aid, role of international organizations, sustainable development, corruption, institution building and regime type. Specific case studies will be examined including China and India, the East Asian ‘tigers’, development failures in Africa and mixed outcomes in Latin America.

    470.767 - The 2014 Elections: Midterms, Media, and Message

    The class will analyze and discuss topics both domestic and foreign that will dominate the mid-term race. The class will look at the candidates’ running and their messages being sent out through social media. How are the candidates framing their messages to the voters in 2014? Will the Republicans gain control of the United States Senate? Will the Democrats gain more governors? Will more Tea Party candidates win in House of Representatives? Will the 2014 mid-term elections be a harbinger of things to come in the presidential races of 2016? The class will also focus on how the media from Twitter to The New York Times to MSNBC and Fox covers the elections. We will not only look at how the media covers the issues but how all the various media cover fundraising, staffers, organization and consultants. The class will also discuss how the possible 2016 presidential candidates from Hillary Clinton to Rand Paul are taking part in helping get their colleagues elected in 2014. The course will focus on the Super PACs and the role of money from all sides from George Soros on the left to the Koch brothers on the right. This will be a lively class with students taking part in political discussions and students acting as candidates and the media for their main papers.

    470.770 - Transatlantic Learning: Lessons from European Energy & Environmental Policy

    This course offers a new perspective about environmental, climate, energy, and urban development policies and cooperation with Europe; reviews and analyzes these policies, their development, and their performance; and assesses their potential applications to the U.S. Urban themes are the focus of this class, given the leadership and progress of many European cities, particularly in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency, transportation, “green” buildings, water infrastructure, and brownfields redevelopment. For example, we will study, among other themes and projects, energy-efficient housing and buildings policies in Freiburg, brownfields redevelopment in the Ruhr Valley, green infrastructure practices in Stuttgart, and renewable energy policies in Copenhagen and their potential transfer to the U.S. We will then explore issues about how energy strategies of Stuttgart can be integrated into energy planning in Northern Virginia, how storm water management practices in Berlin can be applied to Washington, D.C., and how light rail systems in Freiburg can be adopted in Baltimore. At the end of this course, students will be aware of the key European environmental and energy policies supporting these innovations and will appreciate how U.S. cities can learn from them.

    470.771 - Climate Change Economics

    This course will examine the key issues, concepts and applications of economic analysis to climate change mitigation and adaptation policy development and implementation at the sub national and national levels. It will include concepts, techniques and case histories of microeconomic, macroeconomic, and distributional impact analysis as applied to specific sector based policies and measures and related policy instruments, as well as broader approaches for assessment and management of economic security. Emphasis will be on comprehensive understanding and skill development as applied to real world policy and business applications, including current economic, energy and environmental issues and assessments. Students do not need advanced economic, science, policy, or quantitative training for the course, but should have basic exposure to concepts and skills in these areas to support learning experiences and skill development.

    470.773 - Energy and Environmental Security

    This course surveys the multiple and overlapping aspects of energy and environmental security. Students analyze the contentious proposition that increased competition for environmental and energy resources threaten national security and may be the source of future wars across the globe. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

    470.774 - Nonprofit Governance & Executive Leadership

    This course advances our understanding of self-governing nonprofit organizations by focusing on the responsibilities, expectations, challenges, and opportunities of nonprofit boards and their executive leadership. This course covers the basic responsibilities of nonprofit boards according to law, custom, and best practices, and it includes ethical concepts, public attitudes, and contemporary legislative and regulatory issues. The course explores theories of effective governance and executive leadership that have had wide influence, and how ethical considerations relate to perceptions of excellence and shape the way staff and volunteer leaders manage people and money. In the discussions, there will be opportunities to compare the role of boards in US nonprofit groups with those in other countries. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.775 - Women and Gender in Law and Policy

    This course will examine policy issues and controversies affecting women based on gender. While gender will be the primary category of analysis, it is not a unitary category. Statuses and affiliations based on race, class, sexuality, age – and other characteristics -- intersect with gender and diversify women’s gender experiences. Accordingly, the course will explore policy assumptions and imperatives that address or reflect differences among women, and will consider how policies can affect differently-situated women differently. Readings and discussions will focus primarily on policy issues that bear directly on women’s equality: women’s constitutional status; employment and the workplace; educational equity; poverty and economic insecurity; reproductive and family rights; intimate violence and sexual coercion. As we examine policies in these areas, we also will consider when and whether women have played a role in policy developments affecting women.

    470.777 - International Security and Intelligence

    470.778 - Federal Contracting Law

    This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the nuts and bolts of the formation and performance of federal government contracts. Every year the federal government spends approximately $190 billion contracting for supplies, services, construction, research and development. The course, taught by a sitting federal trial judge, will examine the federal procurement process from a legal vantage. Students will gain an understanding of the competitive contract award process as well as issues surrounding performance of government contracts, including socioeconomic policies that affect the award of government contracts such as small business set-asides and incentives to procure from domestic sources. The course will include bid protests and contract disputes.

    470.779 - Computational Modeling for Political and Policy Analysis

    This course will introduce computational modeling and demonstrate how computational modeling can be used to understand political and policy analysis. Specifically, the course will focus on agent-based modeling, which is a commonly-used approach to build computer models to better understand proposed policies and political behavior. Agent-based models consist of a number of diverse "agents,'’ which can be individuals, groups, firms, states, etc. These agents behave according to behavioral rules determined by the researcher. The interactions with each other and their environment at the micro-level can produce emergent patterns at the macro-level. These models have been used to understand a diverse range of policy issues including voting behavior, international conflict, segregation, health policy, economic markets, ethnic conflict, and a variety of other policy issues. The course will consist of two parts: First, we will examine the theoretical perspective of computational modeling. Second, you will be introduced to a software platform that is commonly used to develop computational, and, in particular agent-based modeling.

    470.780 - 21st Century Media: Revolution or Evolution?

    This course will explore historical norms and changing theories about the role of the media/press in society, using comparative analysis of different time periods. While media outlets are losing some independence, this is not necessarily the end of the world, as the need to increase partnerships, including with non-media entities, is a fact of life in a modern, diversified marketplace. In some cases where newspapers or other news outlets are owned by larger industrial, commercial, or even ideological/political interests, the trend actually has an element of returning to the roots of what the press was in the past. The course will use case studies to examine major newspapers that are or were part of larger non-media conglomerates, print publications like the National Review and The New Republic that rely on foundations or major donors for funding, and networks that need to be part of larger entertainment/online empires to survive. We will also study the phenomenon of the “leaner, meaner” blogosphere and whether it can be a reliable or profitable model.

    470.781 - Development of Climate, Energy and Security Plans

    This course will examine the key issues, concepts and techniques associated with the formal development and implementation of consensus-based policy agreements to advance and integrate climate, energy and economic security plans at the sub national, national and international levels. Students will learn the essentials of translating science to policy plans and programs across a wide array of economic sectors, policy instruments and levels of government as applied to culturally, economically, and geographically diverse regions. Issues and techniques will be discussed in relation to legislation, executive and administrative action. Students will focus on theory, advanced techniques, and real world cases in states and provinces, in addition to national and international policy agreements. Students are not required to have advanced backgrounds in economics, science, law, policy or negotiation, but should have basic familiarity with these issue and skill areas to enable learning and performance in a highly integrative environment.

    470.782 - The Practice of Public Diplomacy and Statecraft

    This course is designed to help participants gain insights and some mastery over the public dimension of national security policy formulation and implementation. (Much of the knowledge and skills imparted in the course will be applicable to domestic and trans-national affairs as well.) The course will highlight the role of publics and public opinion in the conduct of national security affairs. In addition to practical skills, participants will gain a greater appreciation of the limits as well as the potential strengths of public diplomacy. The course will deal with current international strategic communication challenges, ranging from Afghanistan to transnational environmental and health concerns.

    470.783 - Presidential Primaries and the Media

    The national media play a pivotal role in the early days of presidential campaigns. We will look at the role the media – e.g., the cable television channels, the newspapers and magazines, the bloggers and the Internet -- play in promoting or demoting presidential candidates as they gear up to run for the Oval Office. The media can literally make or break a presidential candidate in the early stages of his or her campaign. The course will look at how the presidential candidates court the media, in particular, the communications and media operations of campaigns, and how the media court the candidates. We will compare the 2012 presidential campaign with other presidential contests in American history.

    470.785 - Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation

    Since 1945, eight states have tested nuclear weapons, and perhaps two dozen others have started -- and stopped nuclear weapons programs. This course considers why some countries pursue nuclear weapons and why others forgo them, an issue that bedevils both policymakers, who concerned about the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and political scientists, who attempt to explain and predict it. The class will delve into past and present examples, discussing and evaluating theories of why states pursue such weapons, the technologies that make it possible, and the policy tools available to prevent it. We will also draw on the parallel efforts to control chemical weapons, biological weapons, and ballistic missiles.

    470.787 - Current Issues in Health Care Reform

    This course will provide an introduction to the US health care system, with a focus on current debates in health policy: How much do we spend on health care, and why are costs growing? How are the major public programs structured, and do they need to be fundamentally reformed in order to reduce the federal budget deficit? How will implementation of the Affordable Care Act affect the insurance market? Will it raise or lower costs? What can be done to improve quality of care? We will explore a range of perspectives on these controversial issues, including the views of policymakers, academic researchers, economists, and the role of public opinion.

    470.791 - Political Writing and Communications

    "Get me a press release for the candidate ASAP," barks your boss, the campaign manager. You take a swig of your favorite caffeinated beverage and look at your screen; what will you write? This course will provide students the skills and tools they need to succeed in this situation and others. In this class, students will learn the art of political writing and communications where practitioners use speed, brevity and pith to ensure that their points are conveyed and understood. The course will give students a foundation on strategy and message development, focusing in particular on communications tools like press releases, media advisories, speeches, memos and tweets. All of the classwork and assignments will be based on political or public affairs issues. At the end of this writing intensive course, students should have the skills they need to work in communications whether it be on a political campaign, on the Hill or at a public affairs agency.

    470.792 - Social Science in National Security and Intelligence

    This course examines the role of social science in national security decision making and intelligence. The course lectures, readings and classroom discussion are intended to help students understand the ambivalent relationship between social scientists on the one hand and intelligence personnel and national security policy makers on the other. It also considers the opportunities and limitations in the ways social science could contribute to policy making and how social science has contributed to key national issues. The course will help the student become a savvy consumer of social science.

    470.793 - The Influence of Public Opinion on Public Policy and American Democracy

    Public opinion is an essential consideration for all governments. This is particularly true in a democratic polity. In a democracy, a candidate cannot hope to win office, or keep that office if elected, without understanding the opinions of his or her constituents. Further, citizens are expected to influence the public policy-making process by expressing their opinions to their elected officials. This course will explore public opinion from the perspective of both elected officials and private citizens. We will investigate the origins, structure and influence of public opinion. We will examine recent polls to better understand the methods used to measure, interpret and present public opinion. Finally, we will analyze current opinion in three major policy areas: foreign policy, the economy and social issues. This course counts towards the Concentration in Political Communication. Elective option for Govt. Analytics students.

    470.796 - News Media and Presidential Nominations

    Theodore White wrote, "A primary fight… is America's most original contribution to the art of democracy." This course will explore how the news media cover presidential primaries and caucuses, and how that coverage affects the selection of a standard bearer. The course will attempt to put into historical context the 2012 G.O.P. nomination battle, look at how the role of news organizations in covering the fight for delegates is changing along with the media environment and explore the emergent role of social media in deciding nominations. The class will look at the origins of the modern presidential selection process, and how the news media, particularly television, contributed to its emergence. The course will study recent nomination battles, including Clinton v. Obama in 2008 and Bush v. McCain in 2000, as well as pivotal earlier contests including RFK v. Humphrey in 1968, Reagan v. Ford in 1976, and Mondale v. Hart in 1984 among others. The course will look at the role played by polling, televised debates, the early contests in Iowa and New Hampshire and media portrayals of candidate character and positions, as well as the often unintended effects of party rules changes. We will also look at the impact of the "invisible primary" on the party's eventual choice of a nominee. This course counts towards the Concentration in Political Communication.

    470.797 - Introduction to Homeland Security Intelligence

    This course provides students with an intellectual foundation for understanding the concepts underpinning homeland security intelligence, as well as an overview of the US national homeland security framework including organization and policies. It examines the underlying intellectual constructs used to frame the comprehension of security issues, intelligence based on those issues and the development of policies and strategies that lead to implementing programs that protect the United States infrastructure and its people from attack. Over the term, students will be challenged to examine the various paradigms that shape homeland security intelligence and critically apply them to contemporary homeland security challenges and examine how well or poorly these paradigms are reflected in current responses, organizations and policies.

    470.798 - Financial Management and Analysis in Nonprofits

    This course surveys the basic tools for financial management and analysis through the lens of a nonprofit leader. Whether students are interested in a career in nonprofit organizations or in working with nonprofit organizations in other capacities, students will learn to be an informed consumer of financial information and an educated user of financial tools. Students will put themselves into the shoes of a nonprofit leader, understand how financial information and tools play an important role in evaluation and decision-making processes, and ask critical questions using the financial information and tools before making decisions and take actions. The course starts with an internal perspective before turning the focus externally. This course is not intended to make students financial experts. Rather, it will provide basic knowledge for students to ask the right questions, know where to get information and answers, and work effectively with financial experts in the field. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.830 - Practicum in Government & Politics

    One of the great strengths of the Government Program is that it brings theory and practice together, and recognizes that it is often from work experience that students gather useful and practical insights and information that can be applied to academic work. This course is designed for students who have an internship or who work in a field that will allow them to use that work experience to conduct research that may be applied to their theses. Permission of instructor is required.

    470.851 - Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Social Science

    This course is the first in the Research Study sequence for the Global Security Studies program. The goals of this course are: 1) to help students be producers of scholarly knowledge, 2) to prepare students for later parts of the research study process, and 3) to prepare students to understand and critique others’ uses of various methods. The first part of the course will address fundamental issues, such as measurement, causation, and inference. The second part of the course will address research design, data collection, and analysis, focusing on specific methodological tools including case study analysis, interviews, content analysis, participant observation, survey research, etc.

    470.853 - Historical Methods

    Historians reclaim, recover, and revise what we know about the past. They enter a dialog with the dead to make sense of our world for the living, knowing full well that their hard-earned results may be overturned with new data, analysis, or insights. Yet questionable or flawed “history” is routinely to justify a range of experiences, policies, and events. In this course, we instill the key skills and analytical framework in which historians use to uncover and recreate the past, taking the journey from question, to research (onsite and online), to argument and revision (and revisionism). The importance of argument, objectivity, personal and temporal bias, evidence, narrative and cultural context are examined in detail, along with case studies of history being used, misused, and abused by historians and other actors.

    470.854 - Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods

    The main purpose of this class is to train students to be informed consumers of quantitative studies, in addition to teaching the tools of basic statistical work. The emphasis in this class is on application and understanding of existing results, rather than on theory or derivations. The course material will cover basic descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and data collection. The key learning objective is for students to finish the class with a better understanding of the statistical and econometric results they may encounter, both in papers they read in other classes, as well as in the course of their work. The second key objective is for students to have the skills to employ basic quantitative tools in their own work in the fields of public policy and global security studies. As much as possible, assignments and readings used in class will be drawn from the public policy and security fields. There is no mathematical or statistical pre-requisite for the class. (Core course for the MA in Public Management and the MA in Global Security Studies.)

    470.855 - Research Study Seminar

    (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies). This course is designed for students who have already passed 470.851 Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Social Science and either 470.854 Fundamentals of Quantitative Methods or 470.853 Historical Methods (or 470.709 Quantitative Methods with permission from program director). In this class, students will begin and complete a substantial piece of original research explicitly drawing on research methods they learned in the previous two classes. The research study is expected to be methodologically sound and to make a useful contribution to the issue under study. Class meetings are designed to give guidance in the clarification of issues, collection of data, assembly of various parts, and writing. The class will also prepare students for final defense. Graduation is subject to approval of the research study by the committee. Students should come into the class prepared with a detailed research question. Students may enroll in this course only in their last semester of the MA program.

    470.860 - Capstone for Public Management

    This is the final required course in the MA in Public Management program, and students can only take the capstone course in their final semester and after having completed all the other core requirements (Students graduating in the summer semester must take the course in the preceding spring semester). In the semester prior to taking the capstone course and conducting the project, students identify a project topic. The adviser for the paper will be the faculty member teaching the course. To complete the course, students must write a 30- to 35-page capstone paper.

    470.861 - Capstone Continuation

    Required for those who have completed all of their coursework and have taken the capstone course for either Public Management or Government Analytics but have not yet completed their capstone paper.

    470.888 - Thesis Continuation

    Required for those who have completed all of their course work, including the Research and Thesis class, but are still working on their thesis. Details of this offering will be posted soon.