Course Descriptions

This page lists all courses offered under the rubric of the Science, Technology, and International Security Program. In addition, courses offered by partner programs can count toward the Certificate in Science, Technology, and International Security, as well. When in doubt, consult with your adviser.

Partner programs include:

State-specific Information for Online Programs

Note: Students should be aware of state-specific information for online programs. For more information, please contact an admissions representative.

  • Courses

    470.600 - Introduction to Graduate Work

    This course is an introduction to graduate work and will not count toward your degree, but is designed to help students maximize their performance and excel in graduate studies. The course will combine class work with one-on-one advising and tutoring. The course will cover such topics as research, writing, citation, argument, using evidence, study habits, and managing a graduate-level workload. Teacher and student will meet at the beginning of the semester to assess areas of greatest need and tailor the course to meet them.

    470.601 - Climate Change and National Security

    This course provides an in-depth examination of how the effects of climate change could impact national security, international relations, and global stability. Students will begin by examining and discussing the current body of academic literature. As the semester progresses, students will learn and practice how to use cross-disciplinary resources and tools to envision potential relationships between climate change effects and security outcomes.

    470.603 - Introduction to Global Security Studies

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of global security studies, including theories of international relations, perception and misperception, theories of foreign policy, the varying concepts of security, and the elements of national power. It also includes a brief introduction to social movement theory. It applies these conceptual tools to selected security issues such as terrorism, climate change, and the causes of war.

    470.605 - Global Political Economy

    In the wake of the financial crisis, bank bailouts, and stimulus plans, the relationship between American economic power and national security is especially salient. In this course, students investigate core topics in international political economy, analyzing the security implications of each. Topics include trade relations, international finance, monetary relations, poverty, and development. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies. Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.606 - U.S. Security in a Disordered World

    This course provides an overview of the manifold challenges and opportunities for United States security in the current disordered and changing world. It aims to help students assess why events occur and what policies are developed in response. In that endeavor, the course has three major objectives. First, the course will review the major perspectives on, and debates about, U.S. security and the institutions through which policy is made and executed. Second, the course will review some U.S. security issues through scholarly, policy, political, and historical lenses. Third, the course will help students write for both policy and academic audiences. This course is not open to students who have had 470.606 American National Security.

    470.607 - Counterintelligence and National Security: 21st Century Challenges

    Counterintelligence information regarding and operations against foreign intelligence services has always been central to the intelligence process. In many places and at various times, it has been clearly the most significant part of that process. For reasons that will be discussed during the semester, this has not been true in American intelligence for the last half century or so. This class will examine the doctrine and processes of counterintelligence through the 20th century, with the second half of the class pivoting to address the challenges posed by a volatile information and communications environment, a geopolitical environment in which non-states operate as both potential threats and potential partners, and in which insider threats may be as great as those emanating from foreign actors. Finally, the course will address the challenges of operating effective counterintelligence operations in a manner that respects democratic processes and values.

    470.611 - Introduction to Terrorism Studies

    This course provide an overview of the principal areas important to the study of terrorism. The course offers a variety of academic, policy, and operational models, theories, approaches, and concepts regarding the definitions of terrorism, the nature and functioning of various terrorist groups across the globe, and a variety of domestic and international governmental operational and policy responses. Through this exploration, students will be able to identify patterns of behavior of both terrorist groups and governmental responses, and will also be able to identify gaps, and principal areas of improvements in how we understand, and respond to this important security challenge.

    470.620 - Introduction to Intelligence in the Five Eyes Community

    This course provides students with an overview of intelligence structures within the Five Eyes community (US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand). It covers both foreign and domestic agencies, be they civilian, military or police; HUMINT or SIGINT- enabled; security-intelligence or foreign-intelligence oriented; and tactically or strategically-focused. The course will compare how the various Five Eyes security or intelligence services set priorities and objectives, define national interests (versus shared requirements), develop tactical intelligence, create actionable insights, and how they craft timely and relevant assessments for both domestic and foreign partners. Students are expected to be able to draw conclusions on the value of different types of intelligence, from tactical operations intended to mitigate threat to life cases, to strategic insights relating to proliferation or espionage cases. Upon completing the course, students will understand the dynamics that exist amongst operators and analysts, as well as partners within and outside of the alliance, between domestic intelligence clients and foreign agencies, in regards to sensitive national interests and those of the international partnership.

    470.626 - Understanding The Media: Old and New

    No one who works inside the beltway, whether in government or the private sector, can escape the impact of the mass media. This course helps students understand the role and practices of the news media. It teaches critical skills in analyzing and interpreting the news and in assessing its impact on government and public policy. Students explore media ethics and First Amendment issues and hear from several guest lecturers who share their expertise.

    470.630 - Congress and the Making of Foreign Policy

    This class will examine the role of Congress in the making of American foreign policy. In particular, this class will discuss the role of Congress in war powers, economic sanctions, human rights advocacy, the approval of international agreements including treaties, international affairs budgets and spending, investigations and oversight of the conduct of foreign policy by the executive branch as well as the impact of Congress on the general direction of American foreign policies and priorities. Special attention will be given to the role of Congress in U.S. policy toward Iran over the past few decades, the use of military force in Iraq and Syria, the role of the legislative branch in U.S policy toward China and Taiwan and the promotion of human rights as a component of American foreign policy. The class will seek to examine the specific actions of Congress on these matters, and their causes and consequences. The class will use books, articles and original source material from committee deliberations and floor action. As we examine these topics, we will come back to larger themes – the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, the impact of partisan and bureaucratic politics, and the changing role of the United States on the world stage. All this will be discussed with a mind to the role of foreign policy practitioners.

    470.632 - Security Issues in South Asia

    The South Asian region, with its complex historical context, a large and diverse population, and contested national borders, especially between nuclearized countries, poses some of the toughest security challenges facing the world. This course highlights salient security challenges in South Asia, and draws out their implications for U.S. strategic interests. It examines the sources and implications of the rivalry between nuclearized India and Pakistan, and how it fuels Sino-Indian security competition. Attention is drawn to the sources of militancy in India, and to the threats to international and regional security arising from the conflict in Afghanistan. The Sri Lankan Tamil Tiger insurgency and its eventual defeat in 2009 are also discussed, alongside the rising Islamist militancy threats in Bangladeshi, and the history of Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Finally, some of the climate-based threats to which no South Asian country is immune will also be discussed.

    470.640 - Challenges of Transnational Security

    This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of issues such as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security. Not only are transnational security issues varied in nature and scope, but their effects often are obscured by the fact that many are nascent with gradual and long-term consequences. Further, while some transnational issues may not constitute direct threats to global security, they may threaten the world economy, and quality of life of its citizens. Still others compound and reinforce each other, generating mutations of the original threats. This course will examine a small number of these transnational security issues and relevant policy-making efforts.

    470.643 - Text as Data

    Text is not straightforward. In this course, students will develop the tools necessary to collect, analyze, and visualize large amounts of text. The course begins with a hands-on introduction to the programming concepts necessary to collect and process textual data, then proceeds to the key statistical concepts in machine learning and statistics used to analyze text as data. Throughout the course, students develop a research project that culminates in the online display of results from a large-scale textual analysis. Prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.647 - Energy, Security, and Defense

    This course provides a graduate-level, seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, energy as a source of revenue and, separately, a logistical enabler of military operations.

    470.648 - European Security: Russian Challenge, Western Response

    Russia has returned to an assertive foreign policy with military interventions in Ukraine and Syria and intrusion into the internal affairs of Western democracies. Two tools of Russian power demand close study: the armed forces and the state’s capacity for information warfare. Western planners and policy makers are preparing for the potential threat of Russian military attack and also for the actual threat of ongoing subversion, destabilization and “active measures.” Russia, meanwhile, continues to present itself as being under threat from the West, and is mobilizing to address that “threat.” Russia’s security initiatives, even if it views or presents them as defensive measures, could have severe consequences for its neighbors. This course will seek to answer three questions: What kind of threat does Russia pose? How adequate has been the Western response? What are the prospects for the continent’s security if the Putin system itself may be in decline? It will seek to answer these questions through seminar sessions in Washington, readings, discussions and visits with security officials and experts in key European capitals Brussels, Kiev, and Tallinn.

    470.650 - Legal Issues in Intelligence and National Security

    This class will examine the interplay between the laws and the practices and policies of the United States’ Intelligence Community and national security system, both foreign and domestic. While discussion of the history of intelligence activities and laws dating from the origins of our colonial days will necessarily shape the framework of the class, the focus shall particularly be on current debates and challenges faced by the United States in the 21st Century.

    470.651 - Corruption and Democratic Governance

    Corruption is ubiquitous. It is a universal phenomenon that has always been around and that can be found almost anywhere. Recent years have seen much focus on the relationship between it and democratic governance. Indeed corruption and politics more generally, are inextricably and universally entwined. In this seminar we will take an in-depth look at the relationship between the two. We will ask: What is Corruption? Is it always the same thing everywhere, or does it vary depending on context or place? Do pork barrel politics and political clientelism count as corruption? What are the implications of corruption? Is it necessarily always a bad thing or can it be beneficial? Is the corruption experienced in developed countries qualitatively different from that in developing ones such that democracy suffers more in developing countries? We will seek to answer these and other questions by taking a critical look at the politics of corruption. We will look at the origins, extent, character and significance of corruption from both a developed and developing country perspective. We will cover various theories relating to corruption as well as look at a number of empirical cases.

    470.653 - Russian National Security Policy

    Russia plays a key role in most international issues and openly campaigns to realign the international system away from what it sees as American domination. This course considers the substance and process of Russian national security policy. It acquaints students with the main instruments and mechanisms available to Russian leaders to advance the country’s national interests and key policy priorities. The course considers how Russia formulates and conducts its national security policy, the history that informs it, the political culture that sustain it, the ideas and interests that drive it, and the people and institutions responsible for it. The course addresses Russia’s role in key global and regional issues and its relations with major powers. It places special emphasis on the wars in Ukraine and Syria, Russian concepts of information war, and on Russian military reform.

    470.654 - Deterrence in the 21st Century

    This course will comprise a comprehensive examination of what deterrence is and what it will require in the 21st century. It will seek to grapple with and provide insights on a range of fundamental questions of theoretical and policy import including, What comprises deterrence in the years ahead?; How should decision makers understand the many new relevant domains and capabilities (not just nuclear, but space, cyber, missile defenses, advanced conventional) in which deterrence issues and concerns may well have to be paramount in their minds?; What are the roles and requirements of extended deterrence in the emerging geopolitical environment?; How might deterrence come to play in emerging areas such as hybrid warfare?; How might deterrence fail?; and What are the intentional and unintentional escalation paths and dynamics, including cross-domain dynamics, likely to be at work in crises and conflicts ahead?

    470.657 - Energy, Security, and Defense

    This course is a seminar-based overview of the role of energy in national security. Using a range of U.S. and non-U.S. case studies, students will review the roles of energy in grand strategy, the role of energy in conflict, and, finally, as a logistical enabler of military operations.

    470.659 - Radicalization and Deradicalization in Terror Networks

    This course will explore some of the most contested and controversial aspects in contemporary security studies. There are a number of contentious and wide-ranging debates around ideas like radicalization not least concerning its definition, causes, and effects. This course will also prompt you to consider broader issues, such as whether there is a causal link between extremism and violent extremism? Why do some radicalized individuals to embrace terrorism, when other don’t? And should security officials concern themselves with radicalization, or only with its violent offshoots? This course will unpack many of these debates, exploring academic and theoretical literature surrounding the issues of radicalization, recruitment, and deradicalization in modern terrorist networks. It will focus primarily on cases in Europe and the United States, while also exploring new phenomena such as homegrown, self-starter, and lone wolf terrorism.

    470.662 - Religion, Conflict & Peacebuilding

    The 'war on terrorism,' the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, seemingly persistent religious-ethnic-nationalist conflicts, and the rise in sectarianism in the Middle East call for an essential reexamination of the role of religion in conflict, as well as the moral norms governing the role of military force. This course explores the role of religion, ethics, and culture in conflict and peace-building. In doing so, it brings together two topics that are often addressed separately in the literature: religious and philosophical perspectives on the ethics of the use of force, and the role of religion in conflict. By showing that the two topics are intimately related, this interdisciplinary course also shows how theological and ethical perspectives interact with those of sociology of religion, political science and religious studies. In the first part of the course, we will develop a general framework for assessing the nature and causes of contemporary conflicts; the role of religion in world affairs; the major normative approaches to the use of force; and the role of religion and religious norms in promoting and preventing conflict. The second part then addresses particular issues, including terrorism, preventive war, humanitarian intervention, the conduct of war, and post-war reconciliation.

    470.664 - Identity, Insurgency and Civil War in the World System

    Societies in civil conflict are in crises of legitimacy and authority. Often we call these conflicts insurgency, revolution, or civil war. These terms can be seen as distinct. Insurgency represents an initial conflict phase, in which a competing movement threatens constitutional identity and its ruling order. Revolution establishes an alternative identity and political order. Civil war resolves the crisis of legitimacy and authority. Moreover, they often seamlessly flow together as one phase evolves into another. The course examines a number of past and present civil conflicts around the globe to illuminate larger patterns. It considers the relevance to America's situation today to the path of civil conflict in the Muslim world, post-Communist Europe, and Latin America.

    470.665 - Covert Action and National Security

    Covert action (CA) remains a highly controversial and generally misunderstood element within the Intelligence Community. Title 50 of the United States Code defines Covert Action as: “…an activity or activities of the United States Government to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly.” Lying somewhere between overt diplomatic initiatives and direct military intervention, CA is often referred to as the “third option” when addressing foreign policy issues that impact on U.S. national security interests. Through selected case studies, we will review the mechanisms by which CA is initiated, managed and executed – determining what CA can and equally important, cannot accomplish. We will also see how CA, as conducted by the CIA, is often used in a dual track program alongside State Department initiatives in an effort to resolve particularly difficult foreign policy dilemmas. CA is not unique to the U.S., and is often employed by other countries as well. Whether Russian “active measures,” or French “direct action,” variants of CA continue to form an integral, albeit highly secretive, element of statecraft.

    470.668 - The Politics and Process of American Foreign Policy

    Overuse is not the only problem with the maxim that American “politics stop at the water’s edge.” The slogan has simply never been true. American foreign policy has always been a result not just of the crises and opportunities the nation has faced but its unique politics and policy processes. American national interests are determined through the democratic processes established by the Constitution and other legislation and affected by the politics that drive the nation’s elections, its conversations and its foreign policies. These politics and processes have been remarkably consistent since the founding even as the nation’s interests have grown significantly. A better understanding of both the politics and processes of American foreign policy will help students appreciate how the country’s policies are made today and will be made in the future.

    470.676 - From al-Qaeda to Islamic State: Understanding the Roots of the Global Jihad Movement

    No topic has captured the public imagination of late quite so dramatically as the specter of global jihadism. While much has been said about the way jihadists behave, their ideology remains poorly understood. This course aims to help students explore the intellectual development of jihadist ideology, focusing on how conflict has shaped Islamic theology and law. We go from the movement’s origins in the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the jihadist insurgencies of the 1990s and the 9/11 wars. What emerges is the story of a pragmatic but resilient warrior doctrine that often struggles, as so many utopian ideologies do, to consolidate the idealism of theory with the reality of practice.

    470.678 - National Security Leadership

    This course analyzes the civilian and military leadership of the principal departments and agencies of the government which are responsible for the nation's security. Attention will be placed upon the problems with which civilian (senior and mid-level political appointees, Civil Service) and military leaders are currently dealing, the processes through which they are selected and evaluated, culture and competence clashes, the inevitable tension in the civil-military relationship, and efforts to improve professionalism in a rapidly changing security environment. An important objective is to improve the critical thinking skills of the students and to inform them on the political, operational, budgetary, legal, and other factors which influence senior officials in the making of defense/homeland security strategies and policies and on the decision-making methodologies employed.

    470.680 - The Rise and Fall of Intelligence

    This course emphasizes recent changes in US intelligence and assesses the ways in which persistent and emerging issues in the field are helping or hindering the United States in achieving policy objectives. The goal is to provide answers to three questions: "How does US intelligence work in the modern world?"; "What are the larger dilemmas facing US intelligence overseers and those who use intelligence?"; and “How are these realities likely to shape the future of the Intelligence Community?” The approach will be both historical and topical. The history of intelligence offers a surprising number of illustrative cases and themes—many of which can now be examined in detail using official records and contrarian views, and can even be compared with analogues across nations and time periods. More-recent events are not as well documented in the public, official record, of course, but an understanding of earlier patterns and activities can provide valid insights on contemporary trends. The trends identified in the past and the present will then be explored for their ramifications for the future.

    470.685 - The Challenge of Change: Innovation in Military Affairs

    Change is perennial in national security and military affairs, but knowing how, why, and when to embrace change is both difficult and vital. Strategies and tactics may be outdated, new ideas may be resisted, and science and technology continue to change our world faster than we can optimize. The paradox deepens with context: innovation in peacetime has one logic while innovation in war has another. This course unravels the nature of change in military affairs through four themes: ideas, materials, human capital and structure, and, appreciation of the enemy. The course explores these themes through a series of case studies from around the world. Topics include civilian development/military application of science and technology; learning from failure and success (including from other nations); institutional reactions to change; procurement and the role of industry; and, the impact and limitations of individual “champions” of change.

    470.689 - NGOs in Development and Global Policy-Making

    (Formerly Overview of Global Public and Nonprofit Relationship). This course provides an overview of the role of both national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in processes of development, humanitarian response, and the promotion of human rights and active citizenship. The last decade has been one of rapid change in which NGO relationships with government, the private sector, and donors has been in a state of flux, with unprecedented challenges raised about the legitimacy and effectiveness of NGO actors. The course will look at how systemic changes the evolution of transnational advocacy, the aid effectiveness process, the emergence of new development actors from countries (such as India, China and Brazil) to the primacy of the private sector has influenced NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.692 - Military Strategy & National Policy

    This course examines how states and other political entities use violence in pursuit of political objectives. It exposes students to the four levels of strategy—grand strategy, strategy, operations, and tactics—in a national security context. The course will then focus primarily on military strategy as such. Students will critically examine topics such as civil-military relations, land warfare, naval warfare, theories of airpower, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and nuclear strategy. The goal is to understand the embedded assumptions of these various strategic theories, and the circumstances under which they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful. Readings include primary texts that were important in the development of military theory as well as historical cases studies.

    470.696 - Ethics and Privacy in Intelligence Operations

    This course will address the ethical dilemmas and privacy issues that challenge intelligence and government decision makers in an increasingly complex operational and technological environment. We will examine basic moral, ethical and privacy considerations from all sides at several key points in intelligence operations from collection to covert action. The course will analyze the evolving nature of privacy concerns worldwide, with an emphasis on the balance between individual rights and national security needs as executed by intelligence agencies. Students will examine the policy implications inherent in seeking to address these issues. The readings will include diverse and opposing viewpoints as well as practicums and simulations to allow debate of the key positions in "real world" situations. Prior enrollment in 406.665 "The Art and Practice of Intelligence" or 470.711 "Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy" is strongly encouraged.

    470.697 - Intelligence and Counterterrorism

    Counterterrorism is essentially an intelligence war. By definition, both sides use small forces and clandestine means, hiding their presence and activities not only from each other, but often from friends and allies as well. This course will explore the many roles of intelligence in every facet of counterterrorism, and ask students to evaluate their practical, legal, and moral effects and implications. It will also look at the terrorists’ own intelligence activities, and the “intelligence race” between terrorists and counterterrorists. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, students would be well served to have a basic familiarity with intelligence and terrorism before the class starts.

    470.704 - Strategies in Insurgent and Asymmetric Warfare

    This class examines the phenomenon of irregular warfare—of insurgencies and counterinsurgencies in particular—through a historical lens. The course will give you students insight into the origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of irregular wars, as well as the principles of counterinsurgency theory and practice. Through the course, you will analyze current irregular wars, understand what caused them and whether they are likely to be successful or unsuccessful, and see how they can be combated.

    470.707 - International Security and Intelligence

    This course offers a unique opportunity to work with leading British and American practitioners and academics from the security and intelligence worlds. It considers the claims of state secrecy, the threat of nuclear proliferation, of cyberattack, terrorism, the problems generated by the demand for regional security, and the security challenges of revolutions and governing diversity. Intelligence collection, analysis of the product, and its dissemination to customers remain at the core of the intelligence cycle. Counterintelligence and covert action play more opaque but still vital roles at the heart of the nation state. Understanding these perspectives, what intelligence can achieve, but also its limitations, are major themes. This four-week course is offered at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom.

    470.709 - Quantitative Methods

    Solutions to both political and policy problems increasingly require an understanding of how to understand and analyze data. Campaigns collect data to identify potential supporters and donors. Government agencies analyze data to evaluate programs. Research organizations use data to support their policy positions. This course will provide you with the knowledge and skills needed to perform a cutting-edge statistical analysis. You will learn how to design and test regression models using Stata, an incredibly powerful and widely-used statistical software package. Other topics include interaction terms, measures of fit, internal and external validity, logistic and probit regression, and translating statistical findings for broad audiences. The focus of the course will be on using statistical methods in an applied manner. We will concentrate on using statistics to answer political and policy questions, not on the underlying mathematical theories. Recommended prerequisite: 470.681 Statistics and Political Analysis

    470.710 - Advanced Quantitative Methods

    Extends to the concepts taught in Quantitative Methods. Provides students with the tools needed to construct and evaluate advanced regression models. Topics include logs and polynomials, instrumental variables, fixed effects, time series and forecasting models, dynamic causal effect models and regression discontinuity models. Government Analytics core course. Prerequisite: 470.709 Quantitative Methods.

    470.711 - Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy

    This course examines the role that intelligence plays in the formation of national security policy. The course explores the forces and events that have shaped U.S. intelligence. It examines the steps involved in producing intelligence from requirements through collection, analysis and the actual making of policy. The role of intelligence in the major intelligence issues facing the United States today will be discussed as well. The main text for the course will be Dr. Lowenthal’s book of the same title published by CQ Press which has been called the “best introduction to the role of the U.S. intelligence community in the national security policy-making process.”

    470.713 - Resisting Tyranny: Strategic Nonviolent Conflict

    War practitioners, policy makers, and security studies scholars study asymmetric warfare to understand why poorly armed insurgents effectively resist and even defeat technologically advanced and materially stronger armies. This course studies a perfect asymmetry in nonviolent warfare where unarmed ordinary people are able to effectively challenge and eventually defeat a fully armed, resource-rich regimes. In fact, historically, nonviolent movements have been twice as effective against violent regimes as armed insurgencies. This course will consider skills of organized populations in inter-state and intra-state conflicts, including anti-dictatorship, anti-occupation, anti-corruption, anti-violence struggles and analyze how disciplined civilians use nonviolent strategies and tactics to galvanize large and diverse participation, place their violent opponents in dilemma, make repression backfire and cause defections among adversaries' pillars of support.

    470.714 - Policymaking in the U.S. and Latin America: Perceptions and Misconceptions

    Formerly taught part in Mexico, this summer it will be taught solely in DC with new course material. The course will introduce students to major political trends in Latin America and the state of U.S. relationships with countries in the region with a focus on US-Latin American relations (highlighting Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Guatemala). The course will cover both the history of the countries and the U.S. relationship with each.

    470.719 - Technical Collection of Intelligence

    This course covers the application of remote sensing technology to intelligence issues to include geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT). It examines the tradeoffs associated with the use of different imaging, radar, and passive radiofrequency sensors and collection platforms. The methods for processing, exploiting and analyzing raw intelligence data collected by different types of sensors are discussed. The final segment of the course investigates the management issues associated with remote sensing in intelligence.

    470.721 - Comparative Federalism: The United States and the European Union

    Federalism the division of power and sovereignty between a central authority and local governments has emerged as one of the most important themes of contemporary Western politics in both the United States and Europe. For the United States the division of power between the Federal and State governments lies at the very heart of the American Constitution. At the same time disputes over the precise balance of Federal and State power has been a major fault line in American politics since Federalists and anti-Federalists at the time of the founding. For Europe the destruction of two World Wars showed the destructive side of nationalism and acted as an impetus to leverage Europe’s common history and cultural inheritance to forge a supranational political and economic union dedicated to peace and prosperity. Since the end of the Cold War and the Treaty of Maastricht the process of European integration has speeded up rapidly resulting in a common European currency as well as common legal and political institutions. At the same time concerns about the perceived loss of sovereignty, national identity, and democratic accountability have led in some places to backlashes against Brussels and resurgent nationalism. There is also the broader question of the European Union’s goals and identity is it principally an economic union or is it a super-state in the making? In this course we will explore Federalism in its institutional, legal, philosophical, and historical aspects in both America and Europe.

    470.722 - Defense Intelligence in War and Peace

    “Intelligence and War” will examine the use and misuse of intelligence in the warning of, preparation for, and conduct of war. It will highlight its endemic nature, and its applicability to prevailing in as well as preventing armed conflict. The evolution of intelligence capabilities will be reviewed, and its current status and relevance examined.

    470.724 - Managing Dangerous Futures: Global Political Risk Analysis

    Political risk affects almost every major decision that governments, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and even individuals make, sometimes turning what appears to be a good decision into a bad one, with severe implications. However, few people really understand political risk or how it can be evaluated and mitigated. The goals of this course are to ensure that all students can assess the political risk of a particular country or situation; assess the political risk of a particular business investment; take a much broader perspective on the possible sources of political risk; understand how the way people think and groups function preclude effective decision making (thus making bad decisions more common); evaluate risks using a variety of different risk assessment tools; and leverage a variety of mechanisms to improve risk management.

    470.725 - China's Impact on Global Security

    As China's role on the international stage continues to grow, how will its behavior affect the dynamics of global peace and security? Beijing has long espoused a principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, but China is becoming a more central player in efforts to address global security challenges. China's diplomatic outreach in Afghanistan and the Middle East, economic investments in Pakistan and Burma, increased participation in peacekeeping operations, and more vocal presence in multilateral institutions all reflect the country’s expanding influence. Students will put themselves into the position of national security leaders in China, in the United States, and in third countries to explore a range of national interests, priorities, objectives, strategies, and policy tools.

    470.731 - Privacy in a Data-driven Society

    This course will address the legal, policy and cultural issues that challenge the government and its citizens in the increasingly complex technical environment of privacy. We will examine the challenges in balancing the need for information and data against the evolving landscape of individual privacy rights. The course will examine privacy at all levels: by analyzing the shifting views of individual privacy by citizens as well as the technological challenges in both protecting and analyzing personal information for government use. Using case studies and hypotheticals, we will discuss the issue of transparency in the government use and retention of data. Our cases will range from healthcare.gov to “sunshine laws” to national security uses of information. We will trace the development of legal and policy measures relevant to privacy concerns and envision future solutions needed in an era of great technological innovation including the use of “big data”.

    470.740 - Cyber Policy, Strategy, Conflict and Deterrence

    This course will provide an overview of current issues in the cyber realm, focusing on policy and conflict from a U.S. and international perspective. We will begin with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and consider the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through the use of case studies, we will examine previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. We will analyze the roles of several different types of cyber actors including state actors, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups and private sector/business responses. This course will also examine the issue of cyber deterrence, and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. A technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.

    470.742 - Politics of Cybersecurity

    In recent years, the United States has become dependent on cyber virtual networks as the engine for our society. However, this digital infrastructure remains extremely vulnerable to cyber attacks. Protecting the networks we rely on presents unique challenges, as networks are without borders and bear the stress of attack millions of times each day. This course will explore the challenges and political factors impacting the judicial, legislative, executive branch agencies of Department of Defense, Homeland Security, National Security Agency, and private industry as they all work to secure and create a national cyber security apparatus. The intelligence community is facing an enormous challenge in working to prevent the transfer of the United States' intellectual property and identifying the cyber attackers. We will discuss the political implications of establishing laws addressing how information is to be shared between governments and industry and the authorities needed for the DoD and intelligence community to operate domestically. We will discuss the impact of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and examine the evolving relationship of Congressional oversight and legislative mandates. Issues such as jurisdiction of congressional committees, the budget, and the authorization and appropriations processes will be covered. Major policy and counter-terrorism issues of special concern to Congress will also be addressed in this course. Guest speakers will be invited from DHS, Capitol Hill and the media, allowing us to examine the issues from a variety or perspectives.

    470.743 - Data Mining and Predictive Analytics

    Many government agencies engage in data mining to detect unforeseen patterns and advanced analytics, such as classification techniques, to predict future outcomes. In this course, students will utilize IBM SPSS Modeler to investigate patterns and derive predictions in areas such as fraud, healthcare, fundraising, human resources and others. In addition, students will learn to build segmentation models using clustering techniques in an applied manner. Integration with other statistical tools and visualization options will be discussed. Prerequisites: 470.681 Statistics and Policy Analysis and 470.709 Quantitative Methods.

    470.744 - Trade and Security

    Since World War II, American trade policy has been implemented through agreements with a growing array of foreign governments to encourage global economic integration by lowering barriers to international trade. The course will begin with a look at the foundation of this approach to trade policy at the end of World War II and the relationship the Roosevelt and Truman administrations saw between integration and security policy. It will then introduce students to the American trade regime of the early 21st century and the WTO, and examine the ways the U.S. governments has adapted this regime to regional challenges arising from relationships with Japan, China, and the Muslim world, and to policy issues, like resource dependence, sanctions and export controls. The course will have a midterm exam on America’s trade regime and the concepts that have shaped it, and a final paper, in which students will examine an issue of their choice in depth. (Recommended elective for MA in Public Management)

    470.745 - Terrorist Financing Analysis and Counterterrorist Finance Techniques

    The course examines how terrorist groups finance their operations. It also explores current policy approaches to curb financial support to terrorists through the application of U.S. and international sanctions, in particular how multilateral fora, such as the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, disrupt and deter terrorist financing. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of the key tools, including law enforcement, diplomacy, and intelligence, that are used to counter terrorists’ financial networks and activities. Through this course, students will develop proficiency in a series of analytic methods used to study terrorist financing and counter financing. Students will use structured analytic tools such as weighted ranking methods, scenario trees, causal flow diagramming, hypothesis testing, and utility analysis, as well as game theory and logic to form analytic judgments. Prior coursework or professional experience in intelligence, (counter) terrorism, or finance recommended.

    470.748 - The Art & Practice of Intelligence

    This course will examine what intelligence is and how it is done particularly from an American-British perspective. Drawing on historical examples, the course will look at the various types of intelligence collection and how they interact with each other. It will explore the analytic process and the interface between analysts and policymakers. It will place a strong emphasis on effort on the limits of the possible including limits on knowledge, ethical limits, and political limits.

    470.751 - Politics and Security in the MIddle East

    This course will examine U.S. policy responses to the changing political and security landscape of the Middle East. Bringing together historical events, primary sources and secondary literature and contextual analysis, this course will provide the necessary analytical skills required to develop a sophisticated understanding of the current political and security situation in the Middle East. Each module, students will engage key topics in modern Middle Eastern politics and security, including the origins of Islam, Arab nationalism and its rise to prominence, the Arab-Israeli and Palestinian-Israeli conflicts, the internal/external struggles against Western imperialism, the competition among Arab states for regional dominance, the Cold War the Middle East, America’s relations with Iran and Iraq, the oil economy of the Gulf, the challenge minorities pose to the region, the rise of Islamic radicalism, the Arab Spring, and the rise of the Islamic State.

    470.752 - Intelligence Analysis

    Intelligence analysis is fundamentally about understanding and communicating to decision makers what is known, not known, and surmised, as it can best be determined. Students will read seminal texts on intelligence analysis, discuss the complex cognitive, psychological, organizational, ethical, and legal issues surrounding intelligence analysis now and in the past, and apply analytic methodologies to real-world problems. Prerequisite: One of the following: 470.620 “Introduction to Intelligence in the Five Eyes Community,” 470.711.51 “Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy,” AS.470.748.51 “The Art and Practice of Intelligence,” or permission of instructor.

    470.755 - Sustainable Cities in Germany: Lessons for the United States

    This course addresses two important, but overlooked global urban phenomena – the development of world-class urban sustainability plans in Berlin and the Stuttgart region and their suitable transfer and application to cities in the U.S. This class will be designed to expose the student to the evolution and performance of renewable energy, public transit, water infrastructure, workforce training and social inclusion innovations - in these metropolitan regions and the ways that they may (or not) be considered suitable for adoption in the US. By the end of this course the student will have developed an appreciation for the pioneering urban sustainability programs of Berlin and Stuttgart and the phenomena of cross-national policy transfer to the U.S.

    470.756 - Understanding Modern War

    This course examines the phenomenon of modern warfare through both a theoretical and historical lens. It will provide insight into the definitions, origins, objectives, strategies, and tactics of modern conflict. Throughout the course you will analyze recent and ongoing conventional, irregular, and hybrid wars and understand what caused them, how they were conducted, and why they ended the way they did. Through a combination of lecture and online discussion, students will analyze these conflicts from a variety of perspectives to include state security and military forces, insurgents, criminals, and terrorists. Prerequisite: AS.470.692 Military Strategy & National Policy.

    470.760 - Comparative Intelligence Systems

    Do all countries conduct their intelligence activities in the same way? If not, what are the reasons for the differences? This class will consider theoretical ways of understanding and assessing national intelligence systems. It will look at political, historical, and cultural factors which may influence the development and functions of nations’ intelligence agencies and systems. The class will include an examination of the "ways of intelligence" of the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR/Russia, Germany, China, and Iraq, among others.

    470.762 - U.S.- Mexico Relations: Migration, Trade, and Organized Crime

    Mexico shares a 2,000-mile border with the United States, is America's third largest trading partner, and, until recently, was the largest source of immigration to the United States. The ties between the two countries are deep, but they also generate controversy and conflicted emotions on both sides of the border. This course explores the economic, political, and security relationship between Mexico and the United States, the way citizens on both sides of the border see each other, and how the governments – national, state, and local – manage day-to-day issues. The course will involve reading, discussion, and probably one or two video conferences with Mexican students to discuss some of these issues and compare perspectives across the border.

    470.766 - Economic Growth:The Politics of Development in Asia, Africa and Beyond

    What makes some countries grow while others do not? What accounts for successful economic development versus stagnation? As these questions become ever more relevant in an increasingly globalized world, this course offers an introduction to the topic. The class will provide an overview of the main classic and current theories of economic development. It will then go on to explore specific current issues in development, including: development aid, role of international organizations, sustainable development, corruption, institution building and regime type. Specific case studies will be examined including China and India, the East Asian ‘tigers’, development failures in Africa and mixed outcomes in Latin America.

    470.767 - Defense Policy

    This course describes the principal challenges facing the making of American Defense Policy and explains previous and current policies declared and practiced to meet them. The course is designed to inform students on the most pressing defense issues confronting the United States, and to present them a framework for defense policy analysis. It emphasizes understanding those defense policies, analyzing them, and considering and weighing alternative approaches to achieving national objectives of deterrence and defense. The course fosters an understanding of the array of U.S. military capabilities providing plausible responses to the use of military power in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. It examines those policies in the areas of nuclear, conventional, and irregular forces, and weighs alternatives in shaping the size and structure of those forces to meet national objectives.

    470.773 - Energy and Environmental Security

    This course surveys the multiple and overlapping aspects of energy and environmental security. Students analyze the contentious proposition that increased competition for environmental and energy resources threaten national security and may be the source of future wars across the globe. The course also examines how such threats may be mitigated. (Core course for the MA in Global Security Studies)

    470.776 - Nationalism in the Democratic Age

    Nationalism and democracy have been two of the most significant forces shaping the contemporary world. The sense of nationality has provided peoples with a strong sense of shared belonging based around the ideas of a common language, land, and heritage. It has sometimes fuelled the demand for collective freedom and democratic self-determination. At the same time it has been a volatile force generating conflicts within and between nations across the globe. In Europe, the effort at forging a common European identity must confront the challenge of resurgent nationalism in traditional countries like Britain, France, and Austria. Meanwhile traditional states like Britain and Spain must themselves confront secessionist nationalism in Scotland, Catalonia, and elsewhere. The modern Middle East has been shaped in part by the conflicting goals of two major nationalist movements - Arab nationalism and Zionism. In Asia, nationalism is emerging as a dominant theme as countries like China and India rise to political and military power. In spite of economic globalization and the development of international laws and institutions, it is pivotal to understand nationalism if we are to understand world politics today.

    470.777 - Technology and Terrorism

    This course explores the phenomenon of terrorism and its nexus with technology. Beginning with an emphasis on terrorist group factors most likely to influence terrorists' perceptions and attitudes towards extant and emerging technologies, the course subsequently investigates cases of terrorist use, and noteworthy non-use, of various technologies. Students also receive a broad understanding of the evolution of technology with an emphasis on current and imminent technologies of acute security concern, including weapons of mass destruction, cyber, robotics, and nanotechnologies. The course then addresses counterterrorism technologies and potential terrorist response actions for overcoming such security efforts. Students operationalize all of these elements in the final phases of the course when engaging in Red Team exercises designed to demonstrate which types of terrorists are most likely to pursue certain types of technologies, the role of tacit versus explicit knowledge, likelihood of successful adoption, targeting options, and potential counterterrorism measures. Please note that students do not need to possess a technical background or prior knowledge of terrorism to succeed in this course.

    470.784 - Technology of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Students gain the foundational knowledge behind WMD (both weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass disruption) and about how these weapons threaten U.S. homeland security. Weapons of mass destruction traditionally include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, while weapons of mass disruption include radiological weapons, such as "dirty bombs." In addition, the course covers the technology behind three WMD delivery vehicles: ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles. In assessing each WMD threat, the course first examines the science and technology for each type of weapon and then applies this theory to real world threats emanating from state and non-state actors. Students apply this knowledge by engaging in red team exercises to identify options for preventing and reducing vulnerabilities from WMD. Please note that students do not have to have prior technical knowledge about WMD issues to succeed in this course.

    470.785 - Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation

    Since 1945, eight states have tested nuclear weapons, and perhaps two dozen others have started -- and stopped nuclear weapons programs. This course considers why some countries pursue nuclear weapons and why others forgo them, an issue that bedevils both policymakers, who concerned about the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and political scientists, who attempt to explain and predict it. The class will delve into past and present examples, discussing and evaluating theories of why states pursue such weapons, the technologies that make it possible, and the policy tools available to prevent it. We will also draw on the parallel efforts to control chemical weapons, biological weapons, and ballistic missiles.

    470.786 - Weapons of War: The Technology and Uses of Weapons

    Modern warfare utilizes advanced weapons systems. This course will examine various weapon systems ranging from artillery, cruise missiles, aircraft, aircraft launched weapons, ships, submarines and unmanned systems. We will also examine strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. In the examination we will look at capabilities, concepts of operation, and issues surrounding their procurement and use. The course will also involve students working through a crisis scenario utilizing various weapon systems. No pre-existing technical knowledge is assumed nor is any required.

    470.789 - International/Non-Governmental Organizations and Civil Society in Conflict Zones

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has seen a scourge of civil conflicts emerging across the globe, such as in Bosnia, Rwanda, Darfur, DRC, South Sudan, and now Syria, global conflicts have put enormous pressure on intergovernmental bodies and governments. Whether too slow to respond, afflicted by political restraints or hindered by bureaucracy, the restrictions on international agencies and governments have often placed NGOs at the fore of response. Partnering with both national governments, military, and international agencies, NGOs have gained recognition for their role in diplomacy, conflict resolution, and peacebuilding. NGOs have gained a prominent role at helping to defuse, mitigate, and prevent conflicts strengthening their influence and recognition. This course will provide an overview on the role that international organizations and civil society (including community based organizations) can have in conflict or post-conflict torn countries. Students will learn how to build strategic partnerships when working with local organizations and NGOs. Elective course for the Certificate in Nonprofit Management.

    470.790 - Impact of Science on National Security

    This survey course will explore the role of science and technology in the American national security. The focus will be on how science directly impacts nation security. The Federal role in funding science and technology along with a description of the Federal Laboratory system will be discussed. A high level view of the physics and chemistry behind various national security issues will be presented. These issues will include situations involving chemical, biological and explosive compounds and the science behind the tasks of sensing and protection involving these threats. The science and engineering behind the topics such as remote sensing, unmanned vehicles, autonomy, energy, climate change, and genome engineering will also be addressed. The course will be conducted in a part lecture/part discussion format.

    470.792 - Social Science in National Security and Intelligence

    This course examines the role of social science in national security decision making and intelligence. The course lectures, readings and classroom discussion are intended to help students understand the ambivalent relationship between social scientists on the one hand and intelligence personnel and national security policy makers on the other. It also considers the opportunities and limitations in the ways social science could contribute to policy making and how social science has contributed to key national issues. The course will help the student become a savvy consumer of social science.

    470.795 - The Constitution and National Security

    This course exams the interpretation of constitutional powers and rights under conditions of heightened national security. We will consider the Supreme Court's role in constitutional interpretation, and the balance of power among the three branches. The course will also examine the tension between security and liberty during a time of war. Topics covered during this semester will include military tribunals, unitary theory of the executive, congressional oversight, war-making power, intelligence authorities, and treatment of detainees.

    470.797 - Intelligence to Secure the Homeland and Hometown

    This course provides students with an intellectual foundation for understanding the concepts underpinning homeland security intelligence, as well as an overview of the US national homeland security framework including organization and policies. It examines the underlying intellectual constructs used to frame the comprehension of security issues, intelligence based on those issues and the development of policies and strategies that lead to implementing programs that protect the United States infrastructure and its people from attack. Over the term, students will be challenged to examine the various paradigms that shape homeland security intelligence and critically apply them to contemporary homeland security challenges and examine how well or poorly these paradigms are reflected in current responses, organizations and policies.

    470.853 - Historical Methods

    Historians reclaim, recover, and revise what we know about the past. They enter a dialog with the dead to make sense of our world for the living, knowing full well that their hard-earned results may be overturned with new data, analysis, or insights. Yet questionable or flawed “history” is routinely to justify a range of experiences, policies, and events. In this course, we instill the key skills and analytical framework in which historians use to uncover and recreate the past, taking the journey from question, to research (onsite and online), to argument and revision (and revisionism). The importance of argument, objectivity, personal and temporal bias, evidence, narrative and cultural context are examined in detail, along with case studies of history being used, misused, and abused by historians and other actors.